What is a Pump?
A Pump is Mechanical Device, that uses to move fluids by mechanical action, typically converted from electrical energy into hydraulic energy. It is a hydraulic device that lifts fluids from low to high levels, moves fluids from low to high-pressure areas.
Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.
Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, and come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications, to large industrial pumps.
The hydraulic pump can also be utilized in processes that require high hydraulic pressure. It can be observed with heavy equipment. In general, heavy equipment needs lower suction pressures and high pressures of discharge.
The low pressure on the pump’s inlet side causes the liquid to rise from a particular depth and the high pressure on the outlet side pushes the liquid to the desired head.
A pump has similar working to a compressor. The main difference between them is that they use different working fluids.
Pump Working Principle
A pump is a mechanical device, that is used to pick up water from a low-pressure level to a high-pressure level. Basically, the pump changes the energy flow from mechanical to fluid. This can be used in process operations that need a high hydraulic force.
This process can be observed within heavy-duty equipment. This equipment needs low suction and high discharge pressure. Because of low force at the suction part of the pump, the liquid will pick up from certain deepness, while at the expulsion side of the pump with high force, it will drive liquid to pick up until reach preferred height.
How Pumps Work
Pumps work by creating a vacuum in which ambient air pressure forces the liquid. All pumps work by creating areas of low pressure. In a centrifugal pump, centrifugal force accelerates the water to the outside of the impeller creating low pressure at the eye or center of the impeller.
With reciprocating pumps, the upstroke of the plunger or piston creates a vacuum. In gear pumps or lobe pumps, as the teeth or lobes mesh then come apart, a vacuum is created. The difference in pressure creates suction. A liquid under higher pressure will move to an area of lower pressure.
Types of Pumps
There are different types of pumps available in the market. Pumps simplify the transportation of water and other fluids, making them very useful in all types of buildings – residential, commercial, and industrial.
For example, fire pumps provide a pressurized water supply for firefighters and automatic sprinklers, water booster pumps deliver potable water to upper floors in tall buildings, and hydronic pumps are used in HVAC systems that use water to deliver space heating and cooling.
There are many pump designs, but most types can be classified into centrifugal and positive displacement pumps.
Pumps are classified into two types namely Dynamic pumps as well as Positive Displacement Pumps.
Types of Dynamic Pumps
Dynamic pumps are classified into different types but some of them are discussed below:
- Centrifugal Pumps
- Vertical Centrifugal Pumps
- Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps
- Submersible Pumps
- Fire Hydrant Systems
1). Centrifugal Pumps
These types of pumps are most commonly used worldwide. The work is very simple, described well, and carefully tested. This pump is strong, efficient, and fairly cheap to make. Whenever the pump is in action, then the fluid pressure will increase from the inlet of the pump to its outlet. The change of pressure will drive the liquid throughout the system.
This kind of pump produces an enhancement within force by transmitting mechanical power from the electrical motor to the liquid throughout the revolving impeller. The flow of liquid will enter the center of the impeller and exit along with its blades. The centrifugal power hereby enhances the velocity of fluid & also the energy like kinetic can be altered to force.
2). Vertical Centrifugal Pumps
Vertical centrifugal pumps are also called cantilever pumps. These pumps use an exclusive shaft & maintain a design that permits the volume to fall within the pit as the bearings are external to the pit. This mode of pump utilizes no filling container to cover the shaft however in its place uses a throttle bushing. A parts washer is the common application of this kind of pump.
3). Horizontal Centrifugal Pumps
These types of pumps include a minimum of two otherwise more impellers. These pumps are utilized in pumping services. Every stage is fundamentally a divide pump.
All the phases are in a similar shelter & mounted on a similar shaft. On a solo horizontal shaft, a minimum of eight otherwise additional stages can be mounted. Every stage enhances the head by around an equal amount. Multi-stage pumps can also be single otherwise double suction on the first impeller. All kinds of pumps have been provided as well as servicing this type of centrifugal pumps.
4). Submersible Pumps
These pumps are also named as stormwater, sewage, and septic pumps. The applications of these pumps mainly include building services, domestic, industrial, commercial, rural, municipal, & rainwater recycle applications.
These pumps are apt for shifting stormwater, subsoil water, sewage, black water, greywater, rainwater, trade waste, chemicals, bore water, and foodstuffs.
The applications of these pipes mainly include in different impellers like closed, contra-block, vortex, multi-stage, single-channel, cutter, otherwise grinder pumps. For different applications, there is an extensive selection is accessible which includes high flow, low flow, low head, otherwise high head.
5). Fire Hydrant Systems
Fire hydrant pump systems are also named hydrant boosters, fire pumps, & firewater pumps. These are high-force water pumps intended to enhance the capacity of firefighting of construction by increasing the force within the hydrant service as mains is not sufficient. The applications of this system mainly include irrigation as well as water transfer.
Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive displacement pumps are classified into different types but some of them are discussed below like diaphragm, gear, peristaltic, lobe, and piston pumps.
The positive-displacement principle applies in these pumps:
- Diaphragm pump
- Gear pump
- Peristaltic pump
- Rotary lobe pump
- Piston pump
- Progressive cavity pump
- Screw pump
- Plunger pumps
- Rope pump
- Flexible impeller pump
1). Diaphragm Pumps
Diaphragm pumps are also known as AOD pumps (Air operated diaphragms), pneumatic, and AODD pumps. The applications of these pumps mainly include continuous applications like in general plants, industrial, and mining.
AOD pumps are particularly employed where power is not obtainable, otherwise in unstable and combustible regions. These pumps are also utilized for transferring chemicals, food manufacturing, underground coal mines, etc.
These pumps are responding pumps and include two diaphragms that are driven with condensed air. The section of air by transfer valve applies air alternately toward the two diaphragms; where every diaphragm contains a set of ball or check valves.
2). Gear Pumps
These pumps are a kind of rotating positive dislocation pump, which means they force a stable amount of liquid for every revolution. These pumps move liquid with machinery coming inside and outside of mesh for making a non-exciting pumping act. These pumps are capable of pumping on high forces & surpass at pumping high thickness fluids efficiently.
A gear pump doesn’t contain any valves to cause losses like friction & also high impeller velocities. So, this pump is compatible with handling thick liquids like fuel as well as grease oils. These pumps are not suitable for driving solids as well as harsh liquids.
3). Peristaltic Pumps
Peristaltic pumps are also named tube pumps, peristaltic pumps. These are kinds of positive displacement pumps and the applications of these pumps mainly involve in processing of chemical, food, and water treatment industries.
It makes a stable flow for measuring & blending and is also capable of pumping a variety of liquids like toothpaste and all kinds of chemicals.
4). Lobe Pumps
These pumps offer different characteristics like excellent high efficiency, rust resistance, hygienic qualities, reliability, etc. These pumps can handle high thickness fluids & solids without hurting them.
The working of these pumps can be related to gear pumps, apart from the lobes which do not approach into contact with each other. Additionally, these pumps have superior pumping rooms compared with gear pumps that allow them to move slurries. These are made with stainless steel as well as extremely polished.
5). Piston Pumps
Piston pumps are one kind type of positive dislocation pumps wherever the high force seal responds through the piston. These pumps are frequently used in water irrigation, scenarios requiring high, reliable pressure and delivery systems for transferring chocolate, pastry, paint, etc.
Thus, this is all about the classification of pumps like centrifugal & positive displacement. These are used in different kinds of buildings to make simpler the movement of liquid materials. The pumps which are used in housing & commercial can handle water.
Fire pumps supply a rushed water supply for automatic sprinklers and firefighters, and booster pumps supply clean water to higher floors in apartments.
6). Progressing Cavity Pump
Widely used for pumping difficult materials, such as sewage sludge contaminated with large particles, this pump consists of a helical rotor, about ten times as long as its width. This can be visualized as a central core of diameter x with, typically, a curved spiral wound around of thickness half x, though in reality it is manufactured in a single casting.
This shaft fits inside a heavy-duty rubber sleeve, of wall thickness also typically x. As the shaft rotates, the rotor gradually forces fluid up the rubber sleeve. Such pumps can develop very high pressure at low volumes.
7). Screw Pump
A screw pump is a more complicated type of rotary pump that uses two or three screws with opposing threads e.g., one screw turns clockwise and the other counterclockwise. The screws are mounted on parallel shafts that have gears that mesh so the shafts turn together and everything stays in place.
The screws turn on the shafts and drive fluid through the pump. As with other forms of rotary pumps, the clearance between moving parts and the pump’s casing is minimal.
8). Plunger pumps
Plunger pumps are reciprocating positive-displacement pumps. These consist of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger. The suction and discharge valves are mounted in the head of the cylinder. In the suction stroke, the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing suction of fluid into the cylinder.
In the forward stroke, the plunger pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve. Efficiency and common problems: With only one cylinder in plunger pumps, the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the plunger moves through the middle positions, and zero flow when the plunger is at the end positions.
A lot of energy is wasted when the fluid is accelerated in the piping system. Vibration and water hammers may be a serious problem. In general, the problems are compensated for by using two or more cylinders not working in phase with each other.
9). Rope pumps
Devised in China as chain pumps over 1000 years ago, these pumps can be made from very simple materials: A rope, a wheel, and a PVC pipe are sufficient to make a simple rope pump. Rope pump efficiency has been studied by grassroots organizations and the techniques for making and running them have been continuously improved.
10). Impulse pumps
Impulse pumps use pressure created by gas (usually air). In some impulse pumps the gas trapped in the liquid (usually water), is released and accumulated somewhere in the pump, creating a pressure that can push part of the liquid upwards.
Conventional impulse pumps include:
- Hydraulic ram pumps – kinetic energy of a low-head water supply is stored temporarily in an air-bubble hydraulic accumulator, then used to drive water to a higher head.
- Pulser pumps – run with natural resources, by kinetic energy only.
- Airlift pumps – run on air inserted into pipe, which pushes the water up when bubbles move upward
Instead of a gas accumulation and releasing cycle, the pressure can be created by burning hydrocarbons. Such combustion-driven pumps directly transmit the impulse from a combustion event through the actuation membrane to the pump fluid.
In order to allow this direct transmission, the pump needs to be almost entirely made of an elastomer (e.g., silicone rubber). Hence, the combustion causes the membrane to expand and thereby pumps the fluid out of the adjacent pumping chamber. The first combustion-driven soft pump was developed by ETH Zurich.
Application Of Pumps
Today, the pump is used for irrigation, water supply, gasoline supply, air conditioning systems, refrigeration (usually called a compressor), chemical movement, sewage movement, flood control, marine services, etc.
Also, mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering, and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers and other components of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.
In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis.
Advantages of Pump
These are some advantages of the Pump:
- As there is no drive seal so there is no leakage in the pump.
- There are very less frictional losses.
- The construction of the pump is Simple.
- Almost no noise.
- Minimum wear as compared to others.
Disadvantages of Pump
These are some disadvantages of the Pump:
- Produce cavitation.
- Cannot be able to work at high speed.