What is Piston Pump?- Types and How Its Works?

What is Piston Pump?

A piston pump is a type of reciprocating pump in which the high-pressure seal reciprocates with the piston. Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or to compress gases. They can be operated in a wide pressure range. A high-pressure operation can be achieved without a strong effect on flow rate.

Piston pumps can also handle viscous media and media-containing solids. This type of pump works via a piston cup, an oscillating mechanism where downstrokes cause pressure differentials, filling pump chambers where an upstroke forces the pump fluid out for use.

Piston pumps are often used in scenarios where high, constant pressure is required, such as in water irrigation or supply systems.

A piston pump is a type of reciprocating pump in which the high-pressure seal reciprocates with the piston.

How Does a Piston Pump Work?

The piston pump working is similar to PD pumps. Because they work with the help of the pumping mechanism force to increase the volume of the liquid. These pumps can use the power from power sources.

These pumps include more than one piston with a set of control devices. The duplex pump includes two pistons as well as two controlling devices. Similarly, a triplex pump includes three pistons as well as three controlling devices. It is very important to check the controlling devices on both sides to ensure that the flow of liquid direction at both sides is flowing or not.

These pumps are single otherwise double-acting pumps. Double-acting pumps involve two sets of controlling devices & liquid on both ends. This lets the pump complete a pumping cycle by flowing from one direction to another. When the piston is taken in one direction, then it will exhaust at another side. This pump needs solo action versions for flowing in both directions for completing a cycle.

Types of Piston Pumps

These pumps are classified into different types namely lift pump, force pump, axial pump, and radial piston pump. From these pumps, lift and force pumps can operate manually otherwise with the help of an engine.

1. Lift Piston Pump

In this type of pump, the piston above stroke can draw fluid with the help of a control device which is named a valve into the below portion of the cylinder.

On the below stroke, fluid flows through control devices which are arranged in the piston into the higher portion of the cylinder. After that on the upstroke, fluid can be released from the higher portion of the cylinder through a spout.

2. Force Pump

In this type of pump, the piston pumps upstroke can draw fluid throughout an inlet valve to the cylinder (tube). On top of the downstroke, the fluid level can be discharged via an exit valve into the outlet tube.

3. Axial Piston Pump

This is the pump is a PD (positive displacement) pump and it has several pistons within a circular array of a tube block. This block can be driven to turn its symmetry axis with an important shaft that is associated with the pumping pistons. These pumps can be used like an automotive air conditioning compressor, a separate pump, otherwise a hydraulic motor.

4. Radial Piston Pump

This pump is one kind of hydraulic pump, and the working pistons expand within a radial track symmetrically in the region of the drive shaft, in disparity in the direction of the axial piston pump.

Applications of Piston Pumps

Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or compressed gases and can also pump viscous media and media containing solid particles.

Piston pumps are used for water and oil hydraulics, industrial processing equipment, high-pressure cleaning, and the pumping of liquids.

Advantages of Piston Pumps

The advantages of a piston pump mainly include the following.

  • The range of pressure is wide
  • Force can be managed without moving flow rate.
  • The rate of flow and Pressure changes has a small outcome on the act.
  • Skilled in moving of thick fluids, slurries, as well as abrasives with good control device design.

Disadvantages of Piston Pumps

The disadvantages of piston pumps mainly include the following.

  • Maintenance cost, & operating is high usually bulky and heavy
  • They handle only lesser flow rates
  • Flow is Pulsating