What is Water pump?- How to select one of them

Welcome to the world of water pumps; We are glad that you are here! A water pump is an essential tool to pump out water from the garden, pool, or under the ground. It controls the speed of the water and is incredibly useful in conserving water. It solves a wide variety of problems and makes your life easier than you ever thought possible.

From sprinkler pumps for your lawn to well pumps in your home to sewage pumps on the construction site, submersible pumps, or water pumps for flood remediation, all water pumps are the perfect tools for moving water from one place (a basement) to another (outside).

What is a water pump?

A water pump is an electromechanical machine that is used to increase the pressure of water to move it from one point to another. Modern water pumps are used worldwide to supply water for municipal, industrial, agricultural and residential uses.

Water pumps are also used to convey wastewater in sewage treatment plants. Modern water pumps are mostly electrically driven, but other energy sources are also used – for example, diesel or gasoline engines. In some remote areas, such as desert regions, solar panels can be used to power small pumps.

What do water pumps do?

The main purpose of a water pumping system is to move water from one area to another. They are often used on construction sites as a form of water extraction, for water extraction during excavation, in sewage treatment plants, in floodplains, or when dealing with water and oil wells.

However, water pumps aren’t just limited to construction sites; they can also be used in residential, industrial, or commercial locations for drainage purposes. For the hiring of water pumping systems, a water pump is required. A water pump operates the water pumping machine and ensures its effective operation.

A water pump is an electromechanical machine that is used to increase the pressure of water to move it from one point to another.

Types of water pump

There are several types of water pumps including positive displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps, which provide the same service, however, operate differently.

There are several types of water pumps, including positive displacement pumps and centrifugal pumps, that perform the same but function differently.

The core concept of a water pump consists in converting rotational energy or kinetic energy with the help of a motor and converting it into energy for fluid movement or for fluid flow (hydrodynamic energy).

1. Centrifugal Pump

The centrifugal pumps work with an impeller, liquid enters through the rotating impeller and is expelled through the impeller tips by centrifugal force. The process increases the speed and pressure of the fluid and directs it to the outlet of the pump. One type of centrifugal pump is a submersible pump.

Applications of centrifugal pump

Water is very important for efficient agriculture. Such water is often found in various sources such as boreholes, ponds, wells, streams, and rivers. A water pump machine is the most effective means of lifting water from these sources. There are different types of pumps. Choosing the right type of pump depends on the suction head and delivery head.

Centrifugal Water pump is most often used for agricultural purposes, it is a rotary machine in which an impeller rotates in a housing, sucking the liquid in its center, and ejecting the liquid through an opening on the side of the housing due to centrifugal force.

Pumps are widely used in agriculture to convey water from a water source, which may be a river, dam, or well, through pipes to either a point of use or a storage facility such as a water tank or irrigation system.

Centrifugal pumps are also often used for pumping wastewater since these pumps can be installed in pits and sumps without any problems and can easily transport the suspended matter contained in the wastewater.

2. Reciprocating pumps

They are positive displacement pumps that have an expanding cavity on the suction side of the machine and a decreasing cavity on the pressure side of the machine. The water pump works by alternately filling the cavity and then displacing the liquid at a constant volume with each cycle, regardless of the pressure or the pump head that is used.

Application of reciprocating or positive displacement pump

Positive displacement pumps are commonly used for pumping high viscosity liquids such as oil, paint, resin, or food.

They are preferred in all applications where precise dosing or high-pressure dispensing is required. In contrast to centrifugal pumps, the performance of a positive displacement pump is not affected by pressure, so they are preferred even in situations with irregular supply. Most are self-priming.

Type of PD PumpApplicationFeatures
Piston pump

Water – high-pressure washing; other low viscosity liquids; oil production; paint sprayingReciprocating action with piston(s) sealed with O-rings
Plunger pump

Reciprocating action with a plunger(s) sealed with packing
Diaphragm pump

Used for metering or dispensing; spraying/cleaning, water treatment; paints, oils; corrosive liquidsSealless, self-priming, low flows, and capable of high pressures
Gear pump

Pumping high viscosity fluids in petrochemical, chemical, and food industries: oil, paints, foodstuffsMeshed gears provide the rotary pumping action
Lobe pump

 Chemical and food industries; sanitary, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology applicationsLow shear and wear. Easy to clean or sterilize
Screw pump

Oil production, fuel transfer, and injection; irrigationFluid moves axially reducing turbulence; capable of high flow rates
Vane pumpLow viscosity fluids; automotive transmission systems; fuel loading and transmission; drinks dispensersResistant to entrained solids and withstands vane wear. The design allows the variable output

3. Submersible pumps

Submersible pumps work on the principle of Electric Submersible Pumping (ESP). This is achieved by lowering the flow pressure, which reduces the pressure at the bottom of the shaft in which the submersible pump sits.

The motor of an ESP system is also designed to operate at high temperatures (up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit) and high pressure, so it is used in situations where very deep wellbores are common, such as oil Wells.

They can be relatively expensive to operate because they require special power cables, although new developments have seen the introduction of coiled tubing to power the deep motors. In addition, the power consumption is much higher than other submersible pump motors, and the pump operates to tight tolerances that do not allow solids and sand.

Application of submersible pumps

Sump pumps are great for flood control, but they must be submerged in water to function properly. They are often hard-wired and built into drip pans. In connection with an automatic float switch, they are perfect for passive flood protection.

Sump pumps are very good at handling groundwater floods, seepage, and rainfall. They enable effective drainage of the groundwater and floodwater. Sump pumps generally have higher flow rates than puddle pumps. In contrast to a puddle pump, a submersible pump cannot run dry and requires preliminary work with a chamber.

Groundwater floods are not yet well understood, but their periods of high rainfall fill the water table, resulting in flooding of basements or the creation of surface groundwater, which can lead to flooding or flooding. This is usually common when the ground is deep or near a watercourse.

What water pump do I need?

When looking for the right type of water pump for your job, you need to consider the location, size of the insert, and the distance it will take. All of these factors can determine which water pumping system you need.

Water pump systems often have different hose lengths. So be sure to check the distance to be traveled, which is vital when draining a well or doing soil drainage work. If you work long distances, adding a high head pump is a great option.

However, considering whether there is a height difference between the pump and the liquid, a submersible pump would be best. Taking into account the location can also determine which water pump is best to use. When operating in built-up areas or residential areas, there may be noise restrictions, so a soundproofed water pump would be optimal.

Some other factors also need to know before choosing a water pump to let’s see them one by one.

How to Choose a Water Pump?

There are many different factors to take into consideration in order to pick the perfect water pump for your desired application. The most important factors are outlined in the sections below.

Electric Water Pumps

Electrically operated water pumps are ideal for indoor use. Most are 120V and can be plugged into a normal household socket. If you choose the 230V variant, make sure that you have the appropriate electrical wiring.

While not as powerful as gas-powered models, electric water pumps require less maintenance because you don’t have to worry about oil changes and other maintenance.

You must operate these from a power source within the length of an extension cord. So, if you need mobile pumps, choose a gas-powered model.

Gas Water Pumps

Gas-powered water pumps are often used on construction sites and on farms for irrigation purposes. With powerful motors in tow, these pumps can move up to 750 gallons of water per minute (GPM).

If you need to move a lot of water, such as a flooded basement, a gas-powered drainage pump is for you.

Important: Gas-powered pumps produce carbon monoxide emissions, so they must be used outdoors.

Water Pump Applications

The second most important thing to consider when choosing a water pump is the application you need it for. There are many types of water pumps, and all are built for specialized applications. Water pumps and their most common applications:

  • Dewatering Pumps that move clean water from place to place
  • Trash Pumps for moving large amounts of dirty water quickly
  • Power Takeoff (PTO) Pumps that are powered by tractors
  • Submersible Utility Pumps for various water removal applications
  • Booster Pumps for increasing pressure to your water fixtures
  • Sprinkler Pumps for watering lawns, gardens, or farmland
  • Well Pumps for shallow and deep well systems in homes

Specialty Water Pumps for ponds, fountains, sprinklers, pool covers, and more

How to Properly Size a Water Pump

The next step in choosing the right water pump is to make sure it is the right size. The main factors to consider when sizing a water pump are GPM/PSI values, inlet/outlet size for water and hoses, how high you need to pump the water (measured in vertical feet) which is known as the total head, and how far you need to pump the water horizontally.

Important Ratings to Look Out For

Total Head Lift (THL), Suction Height (SH), and Gallons Per Minute (GPM) are important measurements that will help you size a water pump as they will help determine how much water the pump can move and how fast the pump can do the job.

The suction head is the vertical distance that is pumped from the water source to the pump. The higher you have to pump the water, the more the pump will fight gravity. This number is especially important for deep well applications or draining a pond.

Total head lift is the total height from the water source to the final destination. This number gives you the estimated “power” a pump can have in moving water over a distance.

Gallons per minute is a measure of how many gallons the pump can move per minute.

How to Choose an Inlet/Outlet Size

If the water pump you need has different inlet/outlet size options, all you need to know is that regardless of size, they all work the same way. The water pump draws in water through an inlet valve and expels it from an outlet valve.

A 4-inch drainage pump can potentially finish a job much faster than a 1-inch pump. Also, keep in mind that regardless of the inlet size of your pump, you’ll need to use that size of inlet or suction hose. You should NEVER reduce the diameter of the inlet/suction hose.

Water Pump Accessories

There are many accessories that come with pumps to make them more useful and versatile than ever. Most drainage pumps will require a drain hose and an inlet hose, possibly a suction strainer to keep solids out of the pump, or for situations where a gas water pump is used to pump out a basement, you will need a hose kit that will allow you to place the pump outdoors while using a suction hose and strainer remotely.

For pumps that are used in households, such as well pumps, booster pumps, and jet pumps, you may need to check valves, float switches, or water alarms. Or maybe you imagine a spare wheelset, a hydraulic unit, a wheelset, or a control box for an electrical plug-in.

I think you know what you need, now we meet in the next interesting article like this.