What are the main parts of a car engine?

Parts of Car Engine

Car engines are complicated mechanisms made up of multiple internal parts that work like clockwork to produce that power that moves your vehicle. All parts must be in good condition for the engine to work properly. A mistake can be catastrophic! Let’s take a look at the main parts of the engine.

Just like humans to move, your engine requires energy. In fact, the core responsibility of the engine is to transform energy from fuel with a spark, to create the power to move. This internal combustion creates tiny, contained explosions to move.

While many of us think of the engine as one major component, it’s actually made up of several individual components working simultaneously. You may have heard of some of these car engine parts names but it’s important to know their role. And how they relate to other components within the engine.

Let’s take a look at the main parts of the car engine. Engine block. The block is the main part of the engine. Pistons. Pistons pump up and down as the spark plugs fire and the pistons compress the air/fuel mix. Cylinder head. Crankshaft. Camshaft. Valves. Oil pan.

The Parts of Car Engine are as Follows:

Engine block

The block is the main part of the engine. All other parts of the engine are essentially bolted to it. The magic happens inside the block, such as combustion.

This is the core of the engine. Often made of aluminum or iron, it has multiple holes for the cylinders, and water and oil flow paths for cooling and lubricating the engine. Oil paths are narrower than water flow paths. The engine block also houses the pistons, the crankshaft, the camshaft, and, depending on the vehicle, between four and twelve cylinders in a line, which is also known as inline, flat, or in the shape of a V.

The main structural member of all automotive car engines is a cylinder block that typically extends upward from the centerline of the main support for the crankshaft to the junction with the cylinder head. The block serves as the structural structure of the engine and carries the mounting pad by which the engine is supported in the chassis.

The inner surface of the cylinder block, which is transported to a cylindrical shape, is called the bore or face.

The cylinder block of an automobile engine is a casting with mechanized surfaces and threaded holes suitable for connecting cylinder heads, main bearings, oil pans, and other units.

The crankcase is made up of a portion of the cylinder block below the cylinder block and a stamped or cast metal oil pan that forms the engine’s lower enclosure and also serves as a lubricating oil repository, or sump.

Car engine parts

Pistons

The pistons pump up and down as the spark plugs fire and the pistons compress the air/fuel mixture. This reciprocating energy is converted into a rotary motion and transferred from the gearbox via the driveshaft to the tires so that they spin.

Engine piston

The piston is a cylindrical device with a flat surface on top. The role of the piston is to transfer the energy generated from combustion to the crankshaft to propel the vehicle. The pistons move up and down the cylinder twice with each rotation of the crankshaft. Pistons on engines rotating at 1250 rpm move up and down 2500 times per minute. Inside the piston are piston rings, which are used to generate compression and reduce friction through constant rubbing of the cylinder.

Cylinder head

The cylinder head is attached to the top of the block to seal the area and prevent the loss of gases. The spark plugs, valves, and other parts are attached to it.

The cylinder head Is attached to the engine with cylinder bolts and sealed with the head gasket. The cylinder head contains many elements, including valve springs, valves, lifters, pushrods, rocker arms, and camshafts to control passages that allow intake air to flow into the cylinders during the intake stroke, as well as exhaust passages that remove exhaust gases during the exhaust stroke.

Crankshaft

This crankshaft is located near the bottom of the engine block and converts energy from reciprocating motion into rotation.

The crankshaft is located in the lower area of the engine block, inside the crankshaft journal an area of the shaft that rests on the bearings. This carefully machined and balanced mechanism is connected to the pistons via the connecting rod. Similar to a jack-in-the-box, the crankshaft converts the up and down movement of the pistons at engine speed into a reciprocating motion.

crankshaft

Camshaft

The camshaft opens and closes the valves in perfect timing with the rest of the parts.

The camshaft can vary from vehicle to vehicle and is located either in the engine block or in the cylinder heads. Many modern vehicles have them in the cylinder heads, also known as Dual Overhead Camshaft (DOHC) or Single Overhead Camshaft (SOHC), and are carried by a series of bearings that are lubricated in oil for long life.

The function of the camshaft is to regulate the timing of opening and closing of valves and to transfer the rotary motion from the crankshaft to an up and down motion to control the movement of the lifters and to move the pushrods, rockers, and valves.

parts of car engine is camshaft

Timing Belt/Chain

The camshaft and crankshafts are synchronized to ensure the precise timing for the engine to run properly. The belt is made of heavy-duty rubber with gears to grip the pulleys from the camshaft and crankshaft. The chain, much like your bike chain, wraps around pulleys with teeth.

Valves

The valves regulate the air, fuel, and exhaust gas flow in the cylinder head. There are both inlet valves and outlet valves.

Oil Pan

The oil pan, also known as the oil sump, is attached to the bottom of the engine and stores all of the oil that is used to lubricate the engine.

Combustion chamber

A combustion chamber is an area within the cylinder where the fuel/air mixture is ignited. When the piston compresses the fuel/air mixture and comes into contact with the spark plug, the mixture is burned and forced out of the combustion chamber in the form of energy.

The combustion chamber is defined by the position, size, and location of the piston within the cylinder. The bore is the inner diameter of the cylinder. The volume at the bottom dead center (VBDC) is defined as the volume occupied between the cylinder head and the piston face when the piston is farthest from the cylinder head.

The volume at the top dead center (VTDC) is the volume occupied when the piston is closest to the cylinder head; the distance between the piston face and cylinder head at VTDC is called the clearance. The distance traveled by the piston between its VTDC and VBDC locations is stroke.

The compression ratio is the most important factor affecting the theoretical efficiency of the engine cycle.

Intake manifold

The intake manifold is the pipe that is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the combustion chamber for combustion. It is connected to intake valves.

In a diesel engine intake manifold is used for providing air to the engine but in the petrol engine intake manifold is used to supply fuel-air mixture to the engine or combustion chamber.

From the construction of the above manifold, one can easily understand that is a manifold of the four-cylinder engine because it has four outlets.

intake manifold

Exhaust manifold

The exhaust manifold is generally simple cast iron or stainless steel units that collect engine exhaust gas from multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaust pipe. It is connected to exhaust valves. Its construction is the same as the inlet manifold.

The exhaust manifold has the same function in both petrol and diesel engines, in both cases, it carries exhaust gas.

Intake and Exhaust valves

Inlet and exhaust valves are used to control and regulate the charge (or air) coming to the engine for burning and exhaust gases going out from the cylinder respectively.

They are provided either on the cylinder heads or on cylinder walls. They commonly have a mushroom-shaped head.

Intake and exhaust valves

In the case of Petrol engines, air and fuel mixture enters through the inlet valve. But in diesel engines, only air enters through the intake valve. The exhaust valve in both cases is meant for letting exhaust gases out.

Intake valves are connected to the intake manifold and exhaust valves are connected to the exhaust manifold. Both intake and exhaust manifolds are discussed above.

Spark plug

The spark plug is an important component of the ignition system and is one that must operate under the most severe conditions. Because this combustion chamber is exposed to temperature and pressure and contaminated products of combustion, it requires more service attention and is typically the shortest-living component of a gasoline engine.

It consists of a steel shell threaded to fit a standard 14-mm hole in the head of the cylinder. Spark plugs can use a gasket or tapered seat to fit the gap between the cylinder head and the plug. A fused ceramic insulating element is molded into the plug body, and the steel center electrode passes through the insulator up to the connector to which the high-voltage lead from the distributor is attached.

Spark Plug car engine parts

The other electrode is welded to the metal body of the plug, which is mounted on the cylinder head. Electrodes are found in many configurations and are made of different types of alloys.

Connecting Rod

A forged steel-connecting rod connects the piston to the throw (offset part) of the crankshaft and converts the rotating motion of the piston to the rotational speed of the crank.

Conecting Rod car engine parts

The connecting rod has two ends small end and a big end. The small end is connected to the piston head with the help of a gudgeon pin and the big end is connected with the crankshaft with the help of a crankpin. V-type engines typically have opposite cylinders. Which are sufficiently vibrated to allow the two connecting rods to operate together at each crank throw.

Piston Ring

The piston is a major part of a Piston Ring. It forms a movable boundary. When fuel burns inside the cylinder. It applied a pressure force on the piston which moves it downward and converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.

piston Ring example

Pistons are equipped with some metal rings which perform many functions. These rings are known as piston rings.

There are mainly three types of piston rings are used in the piston

  • The first one is the temperature ring. This piston ring is designed to bear extreme temperatures.
  • The second one is a pressure ring. This piston ring is designed to bear extreme pressure due to thrust generated by the engine.
  • The third one is the Lubrication ring. This piston ring is designed in such a way that a small amount of lubricant always passes through it to the combustion chamber.

Gudgeon pin

In the car’s engine, the Gudgeon pin attaches the piston to the connecting rod. And gives a bearing for the connecting rod to drive the piston.

Gudgeon pin

Material: Steel Alloy or Titanium Pin (Low Density) (Ti-6Al-4V)

Car engine parts

Cam

These are an integral part of camshafts. Due to cams, a camshaft is known as a camshaft. The cams are mounted on the camshaft to control inlet and exhaust valve timing.

Now, we are talking about the most important car engine part.

Flywheel

The torque provided by the engine is not uniform and is fluctuating in nature. If a vehicle continues to move with this fluctuating power. It will cause huge discomfort to the rider and also it will decrease the life of its different parts.

parts of car engine

Hence to deal with the problem of fluctuating load a flywheel is used. A flywheel is generally mounted on the camshaft.  It stores torque when its value is high and releases it when its value is low in a cycle of operation. It acts as a torque buffer.

These all are essential parts of a car engine, And the heart and soul of your vehicle is the internal combustion engine. The engine block features parts such as the timing chain, camshaft, crankshaft, spark plugs, cylinder heads, valves, and pistons. The battery delivers the electricity needed to run your vehicle’s electrical components.

FAQ

In broad terms, the engine can be segregated into three key parts, the head, the block, and the oil sump. 1. The cylinder head is the channel through which the fuel enters the engine chamber and exhaust gases exit. Its key components are the camshafts, valves, and spark plug.

For a four-stroke engine, key parts of the engine include the crankshaft (purple), connecting rod (orange), one or more camshafts (red and blue), and valves. For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system.

Engine blocks are normally cast from either a cast iron or an aluminum alloy. The aluminium block is much lighter in weight and has better heat transfer to the coolant, but iron blocks retain some advantages such as durability and better clearances from heat expansion.

The heart and soul of your vehicle is the internal combustion engine. The engine block features parts such as the timing chain, camshaft, crankshaft, spark plugs, cylinder heads, valves and pistons. The battery delivers the electricity needed to run your vehicle’s electrical components.

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