Waste management: Its Classification, Effects, Methods and Benefits

Waste management is one of the most common headaches that face society today. As the population arose on a large scale and began occupying every corner of the land, waste management has become a much larger question. Thus, let us discuss what is waste, the classification of waste, and also the harmful effects of improper waste management.

What is waste?

Waste is a general term that is widely used in the modern era. Anything unused and unwanted over a period of time can usually be termed as waste. It is usually no longer a useful material that is thrown away as thrush, junk, or garbage. Waste can be in any form ie solid, liquid, or gas. All waste products, if not properly managed, can be dangerous and a threat to the survival of mankind. Therefore, waste management is an effective tool for this global issue.

Waste Management

Waste management can be effectively defined as the process of garbage collection, transportation, and disposal. It is very important for the protection of the environment and the health of humans. Garbage can also be recycled and made into a useful resource. Food waste can be used as manure, some plastics can be recycled and new products can be made. The major cause of this global issue is mainly lack of knowledge among the people, unavailability of space, and irresponsible dumping of waste.

Classification of Waste

Residential waste

Household waste includes solid and liquid waste from homes, colonies, and residential buildings. These include wastes from cooking; Washing clothes, washing clothes, garbage from the washroom, containers from plastic covers, old books, clothes, furniture, old electronic items such as laptops, mobile phones, old fans, electric switches, and old newspapers and magazines.

Commercial waste

The commercial waste comes from commercial and commercial enterprises such as restaurants, offices, markets, wholesale and retail stores.

Institutional Waste

Institutional waste comes from schools, universities, and other institutions such as old textbooks, notebooks, plastic wrappers, rubbers, cutters, scissors, paper clips, colored paper, crayons, old furniture, pens, and pencils, slate, and hurries to throw Only.


Garbage includes vegetable, poultry, and animal waste that contains putrescent organic material. This waste comes from the cooking, storage, handling, and service of these items. If they are not handled properly, a strong odor arises which in turn attracts flies and mice. This may prove to be hazardous to the environment in the future.

Municipal Waste

Municipal Waste, Market West, is generated by activities like waste from the streets, dead animals on the road, etc.

Construction and Demolition Waste

This waste arises from the repair of construction sites in homes, demolition, and beautification of houses, plumbing, and electrical work being done, residues of wood, metal, and concrete.

Industrial wastes

Industrial wastes consist of wastes of small- and large-scale industries. It can be a solid, liquid, or gaseous form. Solid waste from thermal power plants, non-ferrous industries, paper industry, iron, and steel industry also falls into this category.

Biomedical waste

Biomedical waste is also known as clinic/Hospital waste. This includes disposable syringes, gloves, old hospital equipment, human waste post-surgery, operation theater waste, abandoned medicines, bandages, human excreta, chemical waste, and solid wastes such as catheters.


Ash is waste that comes from burning wood, charcoal, coal, buildings, and houses for cooking and heating. Most residues are in the form of fine powder which is mixed with air.

Hazardous waste

Hazardous waste includes waste from nuclear power plants, solvents, paints, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, car batteries, radioactive wastes, and photographic chemicals.

Biodegradable waste

Waste products that are wasted due to natural biological processes like food processing units, sugar factories, paper mills, textile factories are considered biodegradable waste.

Harmful Effects of Improper Waste Management

Health Issues

Improper waste management causes a lot of health issues. Waste as a mixture of solid, liquid, and gas with soil, air, and water and contaminates it to spread various diseases. Lung disease, shortness of breath, water, and airborne diseases, skin allergies, rashes, and heart problems are some of the major health problems caused by pollution in the absence of proper waste management.

Air pollution

This is the most well-known problem for improper waste management. In wastewater areas, most of the waste is burnt which is a mixture of different types of toxins. This gas is delivered through a vent that mixes with the air that breathes easily. Some toxic and polluted air rises and is a major cause of acid rain. Large amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted which leads to depletion of the ozone layer and global warming.

Water pollution

This is a major threat due to inappropriate waste management. As rain falls in areas where garbage is dumped, a lot of toxins, chemicals, and degraded substances are mixed with water and dissolved. This in turn creates a toxic liquid that seeps into the ground and mixes with surface water and groundwater that causes water pollution. This has a very contradictory impact on the environment.

Soil contamination

Due to landfill and other waste dumping activities, the soil becomes contaminated and loses its natural attractiveness and fertility. This may be mainly because waste management techniques are inappropriate due to lack of proper awareness. As mentioned above, the mixing of toxins with groundwater is a serious threat to agricultural plantations, natural vegetation and even forests as most plants and trees depend on groundwater and water table for its survival.

Marine Life

Marine life is most affected due to improper waste management. When this toxin is mixed with water, the water’s ability to absorb oxygen in the atmosphere decreases. This poses a serious threat to the marine world as they depend on and survive oxygen dissolved in water for breathing and other activities. The reproduction and fertility of the marine world decrease and lead to its extinction.

Steps of Waste Management

Waste management is a broad term that includes the treatment of solid waste and recycling them effectively without increasing thrush. It is an effective framework in which pollution is reduced to a great extent. Waste management is the solution to many problems rather than one problem. It is a cyclic process that can be broadly classified into 5 steps. The various stages of waste management include monitoring, collection, transportation, processing, and recycling.


This is the first step in waste management. Waste monitoring involves certain processes such as waste identification and waste assessment. Even if it is commercial or household garbage, it has to be properly monitored and accessed so that it can be disposed of wisely at recycling centers.


The next step in effective waste management is the collection. Here waste is collected from landfills and recycling centers. It is now well sorted into recycling plastic, glass, cardboard, paper, metal, aluminum, and so on. After it is sorted, it is being collected and trimmed, being transported to the respective recycling industries or units.


The next step in this process is transportation which is performed by vehicles. They carry waste from collection centers, landfills, dumping grounds, and sorting points to the final destination. This is done by all vehicles. Transport plays a major role in effective waste management.


This is a major step in waste management. After sorting and cleaning the waste, it is broken into bits for faster and faster recycling. In the case of hazardous waste, it has to be disposed of separately and handled with almost care.


This is the last stage of the process. After processing, the ultimate product is ready to be recycled. Biodegradable and organic green waste should be used to make organic manure to be transported to the landfill. The rest should be fully recycled so as to decrease pollution to an extent. New things can be created with minimal use of available resources. This can also prevent a lack of resources. Read about paper recycling and plastic recycling.

Waste Management Methods

waste management


It is the most commonly practiced method of disposal of waste. The waste is dumped at nearby landfills on a daily basis. When such land is filled with garbage, it is usually buried there. Management of these landfills is a significant aspect of waste management. Some of the major causes of the landfill are agricultural waste, industrial waste, solid waste, construction waste, overpopulation, and urbanization.

These landfills have a huge impact on the economy. The major negative effect of landfills is that it causes land and air pollution, contaminates groundwater, and causes serious health problems such as respiratory disorders, lung cancer, and so on. The combustion of landfills worsens the matter which further increases the rate of pollution.

Plasma gasification:

Plasma gasification is a process by which organic matter is consequently converted into electricity and gas. The plant consists of a gasifier that contains gases heated by a plasma torch. It is exposed to all organic wastes and is heated to a temperature of 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to this extreme temperature, the raw materials are converted into synthetic gas or syngas.

This gas mainly consists of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This gas is then sent to turbines which are rotated to produce electricity. Due to extremely high temperatures, even hazardous wastes are easily converted. The main attraction of this process is that it does not produce any greenhouse gases during the process.


Another term is used instead of combustion. Here solid wastes are burnt and converted into gas and residues. This is mainly done to reduce the amount of waste in landfills. This process is called combustion. In incineration solid waste is converted into gas and residue with the help of incinerators. This type of combustion is common in most developing countries.


Recycling is a process by which waste or abandoned materials are reused or recycled to create a new product through various processes. Two types of recycling are upcycling which is to be recycled and which is to be recycled is the breakdown of the product that is to add value to the item. The major benefits of recycling are that it protects the environment; A lot of energy is saved in this process, it is eco-friendly, protects biodiversity, reduces pollution, conserves resources, is cost-effective, and reduces waste significantly. If the recycling of all three is reduced, reuse and recycling are done.

Recovered Energy:

The recovered energy is commonly referred to as waste energy. It is a process of converting substances that cannot be recycled or non-recyclable waste into heat, electricity, or other fuels. It falls under the category of renewable resource even though it comes from non-recycled materials. This can significantly reduce carbon emissions. Fossil fuels can be used sparingly to make energy. This is a new concept in waste management.

Minimize waste:

The easiest way to reduce waste is to reduce waste. This can be effective when more recycled products are used in bags, bottles, and so on. Plastic should be completely avoided instead of promoting eco-friendly bags.

Advantages of Waste Management

  • Effective waste management reduces pollution significantly. Greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide that come out of accumulated waste are also reduced in the process.
  • Effective waste management keeps the environment clean as there will not be too much waste around. There will be a considerable reduction in landfills.
  • The process of waste management creates vast employment opportunities. This is mainly due to the various processes that are involved in waste management.
  • Effective waste management protects biodiversity and thus protects mother earth. This process conserves energy because most processes involve the aspect of recycling. For example, many trees are cut to make paper, but if the old paper is recycled, new paper can be made. Deforestation will be greatly reduced.

The conclusion

Effective waste management is an asset to the economy. Many environmental problems such as water pollution, air pollution, land pollution, emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced to a great extent. More technological advances should be made in this area so that more waste can be recycled effectively. The government should organize more awareness programs so that more people will be aware of the benefits of proper waste management. Effective waste management should start in every household. This can be practiced on a daily basis which in turn reduces waste significantly.

Proper waste management should be initiated by individuals themselves at homes. The 3 R: Reducing; Reuse and Recycle should be preferred. Reducing the use and purchase of goods, reuse of goods and use of recycled materials should be a global habit of people which will reduce the accumulation of waste and garbage to an extent. The most effective way to manage waste is to recycle and compost in the most effective way. More research should be done and new technology should be adopted for proper and healthy waste management. So now, all join hands together and resolve to save our mother earth.

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