What is Machine Design?
Machine design is the single most important activity in the mechanical industry. The success or failure of a company has its roots in product design, whether it is done in-house or contracted out. It is here that manufacturing costs and profits are determined. Even the best of manufacturing facilities is of little use if the design of a product is inherently faulty.
Designers of machinery are individuals who use their talents to solve user-product problems on an ongoing basis. They typically spend most of their time and effort on questions of applications and functions, usually within diminishing space requirements.
That is, the designer must constantly seek to satisfy the customer’s desires with respect to adaptability to the environment and will always seek to reduce the size limitations. Other concerns do not necessarily have lower priorities but are secondary in the sense that form and function are usually fixed in the designer’s mind first.
This means that designers must first cope with geometry. Appropriate layouts must confirm that the proposed device will not occupy space already allocated to other objects, that it will be able to reach or attach to other parts of the whole, and that it can be assembled.
Machine design in general is concerned with the development of power sources and functional mechanisms. However, designers invariably specialize; they may concentrate on such areas as the design of engines or turbines or the functional portions of automobiles, machine tools, or automation equipment.
Types of Machine Design
As manufacturing technology evolves, we’ve seen impressive leaps when it comes to the creativity and complexity of machine design and mechanical engineering.
Machine elements that once seemed impossible are now commonplace in today’s manufacturing world, and while we all want to strive to be at the forefront of innovation, we can also make use of existing technology to get us moving in the right direction.
This is where the fundamentals of machine design come in, and they can be broken down into three categories:
- Adaptive Design,
- Developmental Design
- New Design.
1. Adaptive Design
One of the most basic, but widely used types of the machine design is Adaptive Design. Think of the saying “don’t reinvent the wheel”. Oftentimes, there is a machine component or design element that already exists and has been widely embraced that could be adapted to suit your purposes.
Adaptive Design utilizes basic features and tweaks them slightly to better fit a particular application. Modifying technology that has already been proven effective can save engineers time and businesses money, and is often far more effective than trying to design apart from scratch.
2. Developmental Design
Similar to Adaptive Design, Developmental Design uses existing concepts and technology but adds or combines new machine elements and components to create something unique.
An example often referred to in Developmental Design is the motorcycle, which is essentially the marriage between a bicycle and a combustion engine.
The motorcycle was certainly a massive development in manufacturing technology and machine design, but it relies on preexisting mechanical elements to serve as the building blocks for something new.
3. New Design
The vast majority of machine design will fall into the previous two categories, but there are still new and unique parts and technology being created all the time. These one-of-a-kind innovations would be considered New Design, where engineers and designers come up with something entirely original.
This is far less common, and often requires a great deal of time, money, and research. Because we live in a world of shared knowledge and technology, it is usually more productive and efficient to modify that which already exists,
But with the right idea and the proper experience, elements in the New Design space can be extremely lucrative and beneficial to the manufacturing world as a whole.
Designs based on the methods used can be classified as follows:
- Rational Design: This type of design depends on mathematical formulas of the principle of mechanics.
- Empirical Design: This type of design depends on empirical formulas based on practice and past experience.
- Industrial Design: This type of design depends on the product features for manufacturing any machine component in the industry.
- Optimal design: It is the best design for a given objective function under specified constraints. This can be achieved by reducing undesirable effects.
- System Design: It is the design of any complicated mechanical system like a motor car.
- Element Design: It is the design of any part of a mechanical system such as a crankshaft, piston, connecting rod, etc.
- Computer-Aided Design: This type of design relies on the use of computer systems to aid in the construction, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design.
What are the General Considerations in Machine Design?
The following are general considerations in designing machine components:
1. Type of load and stress due to load
The load on a machine component can act in many ways due to which internal stresses establish.
2. The motion of machine parts or kinematics
The successful operation of any machine depends largely on the simplest arrangement of the parts that will provide the required speed. The speed of the parts can be:
- Rectilinear motion including unidirectional and recrossing motion.
- curvilinear motion consisting of rotary, oscillation, and simple harmonic.
- Steady speed.
- Constant or variable acceleration.
3. Selection of materials
It is essential that a designer should have an in-depth knowledge of the properties of materials and their behavior in working conditions. Some important features of the materials are strength, durability, flexibility, weight, resistance to heat and corrosion, moldability, welded or hardened, machinability, electrical conductivity, etc.
4. Size and shape of parts
Form and shape are based on decisions. The smallest practical cross-section can use. But it can test that the stresses induced in the designed cross-section are more secure. To design the part of any machine for form and shape.
It is necessary to know the forces that the part must maintain. It is also important to estimate any sudden applied or impact loads that may cause failure.
5. Abrasion resistance and lubrication
There is always a loss of power due to abrasion resistance and it should be noted that the starting friction is greater than the running friction. Therefore, it is necessary that careful attention should be paid to the case of lubrication of all surfaces, which run in contact with others, whether they are in rotating, sliding, or rolling bearings.
6. Convenient and economical features
In designing, the operating characteristics of the machine must be carefully studied. Starting, controlling, and stopping the lever must be located on the basis of convenient handling.
Wear adjustments must provide to employ various take-up devices and to organize them so that the alignment of the parts is preserved. If parts are replaced for different products or replaced due to wear or breakage, easy access should provide, and if possible, the need to remove other parts to accomplish this should avoid.
The economical operation of a machine, which is to use for production, or for the processing of materials, must be studied to find out whether it has the maximum capacity to correspond to the production of good work.
7. Use of standard parts
The use of standard parts is closely related to cost, as the cost of standard or stock parts is only one part of the cost of similar parts made to order.
And parts that can select from regular shop stock such as screws, nuts, and pins. Bolts and studs should be as short as possible to avoid delays in changing drills, reamers, and taps. As well as reducing the number of wrenches required.
8. Safety of operation
Some machines are dangerous to operate, especially those that are fast to insure production at the maximum rate. Therefore, any moving part of a machine, which is within a worker’s zone, is considered a risk of accident and may cause injury.
Therefore, it is necessary that a designer should always provide safety equipment to protect the operator. Safety devices should not interfere with the operation of the machine in any way.
A design engineer should be familiar with the limitations of his employer’s workshop. So, as to avoid the need to work in some other workshop. Sometimes it is necessary to plan and supervise the operation of the workshop and to draft methods for casting, handling, and machining special parts.
The number of machines to be manufactured
The number of articles or machines manufactured affects design in many ways. Engineering and shop costs called fixed charges or overhead expenses are distributed over the number of articles manufactured.
If only a few articles are to make, the additional expense is not reasonable unless the machine is large or of some special design. An order calling for a small number of products will not allow for any undue expense in the workshop processes so that designers can limit their specifications to standard parts.
Cost of manufacture
The cost of building an article is the most important consideration involved in the design. In some cases, it is very possible that the high cost of an article may immediately prevent it from further consideration.
If an article has been invented and tests of handmade samples have shown that it has commercial value. It is possible to justify the expense of a considerable amount of money in the design and development of automated machines for the production of the article.
Especially if it is Can be sold in large numbers. The objective of the design engineer, under all conditions, should be to minimize manufacturing costs.
Each machine or structure must assemble as a unit before functioning. Larger units must often assemble in the shop, be tested, and then transported to their place of service. The final location of any machine is important and the design engineer must estimate the exact location and local facilities for manufacture.
What is the General Procedure in Machine Design?
In designing machine components, there is no hard and fast rule. The problem can try in many ways. However, the general procedure for resolving a design problem is as follows:
- Recognition of Necessity: First, make a complete statement of the problem, indicating which purpose or purpose the machine is to be designed for.
- Synthesis (a mechanism): Select the possible mechanism or group of mechanisms that will give the desired speed.
- Analysis of forces: Find the forces acting on the energy transmitted by each member of the machine and each member.
- Material Selection: Select the most appropriate material for each member of the machine.
- Design of Elements: Find the size of each member of the machine by considering the force and permissible stress on the member for the material used. It should be kept in mind that each member should not deflect or deform beyond the permissible limit.
- Modification: Modify the size of the member to agree with previous experience and decision to facilitate construction. Modification may also be necessary by considering manufacturing to reduce overall costs.
- Detailed drawing: Draw a complete drawing of the assembly of each component and machine with the entire specification for suggested manufacturing processes.
- Production: The component is manufactured in the workshop according to the drawing.
What is meant by machine design?
Machine design is an area of study in which one learns to design machine parts by utilizing its whole knowledge and experience in the field of mechanical engineering.
What are the types of machine design?
Types of Machine Design – Adaptive Design, Development Design and New Design
- Adaptive design.
- Development design/Variant Design.
- New design/Original design.
What is the use of machine design?
Machine Design or Mechanical Design can be defined as the process by which resources or energy is converted into useful mechanical forms, or mechanisms so as to obtain useful output from the machines in the desired form as per the needs of the human beings.
What are the types of design?
The following are common types of design.
- Architecture. Designing and engineering buildings and structures.
- Interior Design. Designing interior and exterior physical environments that are used by people.
- Landscape Architecture.
- Industrial Design.
- Fashion Design.
- Engineering Design.
- Software Design.
- User Interface Design.
What is key in machine design?
Key, in machine construction, a device used to prevent rotation of a machine component, such as a gear or a pulley, relative to the shaft on which it is mounted. A common type of key is a square bar that fits half in a groove (keyway) in the shaft and half in an adjoining keyway in the component.
What are the 7 steps in design process?
Terms in this set:
- Define the Problem.
- Identify Resources and Conduct Research.
- Brainstorm and Set Goals.
- Create Alternatives and Select the Best Solution.
- Construct a Model or Prototype.
- Test Your Solution.
- Evaluate and Make Necessary Changes.
What is the basic knowledge required for Machine Design?
Machine design focuses on the basic principles of the following three areas: Mechanical behavior includes statics, dynamics, strength of materials, vibrations, reliability, and fatigue. Machine elements are basic mechanical parts of machines.
What are codes in engineering?
A code is a set of rules and specifications for the correct methods and materials used in a certain product, building or process. Codes can be approved by local, state or federal governments and can carry the force of law.
How do you design a machine?
Machine Design Procedure:
- Identifying the need for the Equipment or a Machine.
- Selecting the possible Mechanisms.
- Analysis of Forces.
- Selection of Materials.
- Design of Elements.
- Detailed Drawings.
What is mechanical design?
Mechanical design is to design parts, components, products, or systems of mechanical nature. For example, designs of various machine elements such as shafts, bearings, clutches, gears, and fasteners fall into the scope of mechanical design.
What is engineering designing?
The engineering design process is a series of steps that engineers follow to find a solution to a problem. The steps include problem-solving processes such as, for example, determining your objectives and constraints, prototyping, testing and evaluation.
What is machine drawing?
Machine drawing may be defined as the representation of a machine component or machine by lines according to certain set rules. A machine drawing generally gives all the external and internal details of the machine component from which it can be manufactured.
What are the 4 elements of design?
Line, shape, color, texture, and space are the basic elements of design.
What are the 4 types of designers?
The Four types of design
- Business design.
- Enterprise design.
- Products design.
- Execution design.
What are engineering design skills?
Engineering design is defined as the method that engineers use to recognize and solve problems. It is an extensive and flexible approach to problem-solving and provides the necessary information needed regarding every step of the process.