Lathe Machine: Parts, Types, and Application

What is Lathe Machine?

The lathe is a machine tool that uses a cutting tool to remove material from the surface of the workpiece which is placed in the chuck to hold the workpiece and feed to the workpiece was provided by the tool to remove the material. It is the most versatile and widely used machine in industries, institutes, etc.

A lathe (/leɪð/) is a machine tool that rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.

The lathe machine is a very versatile and important machine for knowing how to work. This machine rotates a cylindrical object against a device that the person controls. The lathe is the precursor to all machine tools. The work is placed and rotated on its axis while the cutting tool is advanced along the line of the desired cut.

The lathe is one of the most ingenious machine tools used in the industry. With appropriate attachments, leather can be used for turning, taping, form turning, screw cutting, facing, dull, boring, spinning, grinding, polishing operations. The cutting operation is achieved with a cutting tool that is fed either identical or at right angles to the work axis.

lathe machine
Lathe machine

The cutting tool can also be fed at an angle, relative to the machining taper and the axis of work for the angles. On the lathe, the tailstock doesn’t rotate. Instead, the axle that holds the stock rotates. Collets, center, three-jaw chuck, and other work holding attachments can all be held in the spindle.

The tailstock can hold equipment for drilling, threading, reaming, or cutting tapers. Additionally, it can support the end of the workpiece using a hub and can be adjusted to adapt to different workpiece lengths.

Parts of Lathe Machine

parts of lathe machine
Parts of lathe machine

Following are lathe machine parts:

  1. Headstock: The headstock is usually located on the left side of the lathe and is equipped with gears, spindles, chucks, gear speed control levers, and feed controllers. It mounted in a fixed position on the inner ways, usually at the left end. Using a chuck, it rotates the work.
  2. Tailstock: It is also sometimes called a loos headstock or a puppet head. Usually located on the right side of the lathe, the workpiece is supported at the end. Fits on the inner ways of the bed and can slide towards any position of the headstock to fit the length of the workpiece. An optional taper turning attachment would be mounted to it.
  3. Bed: The main parts of the lathe, Usually made of cast iron. Provides a heavy rigid frame on which all the main components are mounted. all parts are bolted to the bed. It includes the headstock, tailstock, carriage rails, and other parts.
  4. Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and the tailstock and contains an apron, saddle, compound rest, cross slide, and tool post. Moves on the outer ways. Used for mounting and moving most of the cutting tools.
  5. Chuck allows the mounting of difficult workpieces that are not round, square, or triangular.
  6. Feed rod: The lead screw is used to move the carriage automatically during threading. Used to connect the feed box and slide box, and transmit the speed and power of the feed box to the slide box, so that the slide box achieves longitudinal linear motion.
  7. Lead screw: The screw is specially set to bend various threads. When bending other surfaces of the workpiece, only smooth screws are used instead of screws. Students should distinguish the difference between a light screw and a lead screw based on the contents of the slide box.
  8. Chip Pan: It is present at the bottom of the lathe. A chip pan is used to collect the chips that are produced during the lathe operation.
  9. Hand Wheel: It is the wheel that is operated by hand to move a cross slide, carriage, tailstock, and other parts that have a handwheel.
  10. Cooling device: The cooling device primarily uses a cooling water pump to suppress the slotted fluid in the water tank and spray it to the cutting location, wash the chips, and lower the cutting temperature. Smoothes the surface to improve tool and service life. Surface processing quality of the workpiece.
  11. Legs: They are supports that carry the entire weight of the machine over them. The prevailing method is to use cast legs. Both feet are firmly secured to the floor through foundation spots to prevent vibration in the machine.
  12. Slide box: This is the control box for the feed movement of the lathe. It is furnished with a mechanism that turns the rotary motion of the light rod and the lead screw to the linear motion of the tool post.
  13. Gearbox: inside the headstock, providing multiple speeds with a geometric ratio by moving levers.
  14. Spindle: Hole through the headstock to which bar stock can be fed, which allows shafts that are up to 2 times the length between lathe centers to be worked on one end at a time.
  15. Cross Slide: Mounted on the traverse slide of the carriage, and uses a handwheel to feed tools into the workpiece.
  16. Tool Post: To mount tool holders in which the cutting bits are clamped.
  17. Guideways: To ensure the accurate movement of tailstock and carriage on the bed, comes in outer or inner ways.
  18. Apron: Attached to the front of the carriage, it has the mechanism and controls for moving the carriage and cross slide.

Types of Lathe Machine

The most basic machine tool is a lathe, which can be classified into different types of lathe machine base on different processing conditions for the turning process.

The lathe machine is used to eliminate excess material from the workpiece so that the workpiece corresponds to the desired style and shape. Depending on the characteristics, the following types of lathe machines can be divided into several types: center lats or engine lats, speed lats, capstone laths or turret lats, tool room lats, bench lats, automatic lats, special lats, and CNC lats.

1) Center lathe or Engine lathe Machine:

Do you want to perform operations like turning, drilling, boring, reaming, noodling, etc. on a metal? Here is a look into miniature metal machining and then.

This is a type of lathe that is currently widely used and can perform operations such as turning, end face, grooving, knurling, and threading. The feed mechanism of the engine lathe can operate the cutting tool in both the longitudinal and lateral directions. The center lathe can be divided into belt drive, motor drive, and reducer depending on the drive source.

It all began during the 19th and 20th centuries when engine lats were considered the ‘king’ of all machines. It was one of the most common machines installed in every blacksmith shop. The use of the word “engine” is a bit confusing here.

In its early days, it operated on steam engines, as steam locomotives were the major inventions and power sources during the Industrial Revolution, and as time progressed it shifted the power source to motors (concerning an environmentally friendly environment).

Widely used in these industries due to its availability for low and high-power operations and is available in many sizes that can vary up to 60 feet.

Now its main mounting parts like headstock, cross slide, lead screw, tailstock, carriage, compound rest, feed rod, etc. come. These are all mounted on the machine with the headstock and tailstock mounted in the longitudinal direction of the machine for the gear selector, the rpm selector, the former selector, and the latter feed into a barrel.

More importantly, related to the speed lathe, the headstock has a spindle that has a wide range of speed ratios in the presence of the gearbox.

2) Speed Lathe/Wood Lathe Machine

The high-speed lathe can also be called a wood lathe, which can be operated at high speed and is operated manually. The speed ​​range for high-speed lathes is approximately 1200 to 3600 RPM. This lathe is used for the rotation, centering, polishing, and machining of wood.

These are some of the products that can be easily made on wooden logs or speed sticks. As the name suggests, there is a high-speed spindle that can be operated at 3 to 4 different speeds, near 1000 to 2100 pm, by moving the position of the drive belt on the pulley system.

Yes, it is very simple in design as components like the gearbox, feed rod, lead screen, carriage are not part of these lats, making it simple and easy to operate under any condition. The major components of these lats are headstock, tailstock, tool rest, and bed.

Unlike other logs, these logs have less accuracy because the cutting tool is operated by hand. Therefore, these lattes require good skill and steady hands to provide spike and span contours and have perfect curves on the workpiece.

3) Capstan and turret lathe machine:

Capstan and turret lathes are improvements in engine lathes that can be used for high volume production and large jobs. The head of the machine tool is a hexagonal head, which can be rotated to change the operation without manual change, including turning, end face, boring, and reaming.

It is basically a device for the production of large quantities of work with duplicate products, which by nature are usually interchangeable. It is used where a sequence of operations on a piece of work is required.

Unlike the engine lathe, these machines have the hexagonal turret mounted on the saddle instead of the tailstock, on which multiple devices can be fitted and feed the work with the proper sequence, which allows removal of the workpiece from a machine and Minimizes the time to keep it separate from the other.

Manually or automatically changes in tool condition, operations such as drilling, boring, reaming, knurling, etc., which reduce the possibility of error in the alignment and machining process.

These machines do not require such skilled laborers to operate. Whatever skill the operator requires is the installation of tools in the turret or capstan head, and further operations of these machines are automated after the completion of this task.

4) Toolroom lathe machine:

The tool room lathe is similar to the engine lathe, but its parts are manufactured with great precision and in order, so this machine is used for high precision grinding machining.

Some products such as accuracy tools, die metal, jigs, and fixtures require greater precision and skill to work; In that case, tool room lathe machines are used.

They are also known as standard manufacturing sticks and are used for many operations such as boring, drilling, turning, reaming, production screw threads, knurling, taper turning, and sometimes special milling operations with appropriate stability.

These include a gearbox in the headstock that provides a wide range of speed ratios, from very low speeds to very high speeds, and can vary from an extended range of thread pitches.

5) Bench lathe machine:

The small size of the bench lathe can be used for smaller and more precise work, with parts similar to engine lathes and high-speed lathes.

6) Automatic lathe machine:

The automatic lathe can operate automatically and can be used for mass production. The automatic machine will change automatically without having to change the equipment manually. The benefit is that an operator can command the operation of multiple machines at the same time. The automatic lathe is a heavy-duty and high-speed machine.

7) Special lathe machine:

Special lathes are used to perform special operations that are not possible with the rest of the lathe. Special lathes include vertical lathes, wheeled lathes, T-type lathes, multi-axis lathes, production lathes, duplex or tracer lathes, etc., which are known for their heavy-duty production of the same parts.

8) CNC lathe machine:

The CNC lathe is used to control the operation of the machine tool through a computer program. Once the program is input in steps, mass production can be performed with high precision and high speed, and once the operation code is set, it can be produced without re-entering the next time. CNC lathes are the most advanced types of lathes available today, and the tolerances of the parts they produce are extremely precise.

Application of Lathe Machine

The Applications of Lathe Machine are as follows

  • Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, thermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass-working.
  • Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the Potter’s wheel.
  • Lathes are used in Forming, Contour Turning, Machining of Cams, Ultra-Precision Machining, Hard Turning.
  • lathe machines are mainly used in industries to replace metal components as well as wood components with metal lathes and wood lathes.
  • A CNC lathe finds its application in the fields of aerospace, automotive, medical, textile, automobile industries, etc.
  • Lathes are used in various institutes to perform laboratory experiments.
  • lathe machine Make round or partially round parts, Cut male and female threads, Bore and drill holes.
  • Its use in Cut off material, Knurl a knob, Polish a surface of a round part, Taper a shaft, Face or dress rough stock.
  • I use my mill for milling, but it is possible to mill small parts on a lathe. Chuck up a cutter and clamp the part on your tool post.
  • Power things like a hydraulic pump that have no motor. I can set the direction and speed of any shaft that fits in my chucks.
  • it uses to Align 2 pieces of a broken shaft before repair and Bevel an edge.

Advantages of Lathe Machine

The Advantages of Lathe Machine are as follows.

  • The accuracy is much higher in the case of CNC lathes than in general machining lengths.
  • The flow of production is high.
  • This requires some operators in a manual lathe.
  • The lead time will be very short.
  • Greater production over a given period.
  • More economy in floor space.
  • Improvement inaccuracy.
  • Floor space maintenance and inventory requirements are reduced.
  • More consistently and accurate work than turrets.
  • The more constant flow of production.
  • Scrape loss is reduced by reducing operator error.
  • During machine operation operator is free to operate another machine/can inspect complete parts.
  • Machining in the lathe and CNC lathe was very quick.
  • Due to the CNC logs, the time to experiment was much shorter than that of conventional machines.

Disadvantages of Lathe Machine

The limitations of lathe machine are as follows

  • If maintenance was not good, it would damage the parts of the machine by not using lubrication.
  • The device also wears off rapidly, if the operator is not good enough to handle the experiment.
  • Due to the speed of the bite, the smell will be very high in the atmosphere which also affects health.
  • These machines were more expensive than other conventional machines as you can perform almost all operations on a lathe.

The lathe machine is a machine tool that uses a cutting tool to remove material from the surface of the workpiece which is placed in the chuck to hold the workpiece and feed to the workpiece was provided by the tool to remove the material. It is the most versatile and widely used machine in industries, institutes, etc.

A lathe is a machining tool that is used primarily for shaping metal or wood. It works by rotating the workpiece around a stationary cutting tool. The main use is to remove unwanted parts of the material, leaving behind a nicely shaped workpiece.

Lathe machine is one of the most important machine tools which is used in the metalworking industry. It operates on the principle of a rotating workpiece and a fixed cutting tool. The cutting tool is feed into the workpiece which rotates about its own axis causing the workpiece to form the desired shape.

Lathe Cutting Tools

  1. Carbide tip tools.
  2. Grooving tool.
  3. Cut-Off blade.
  4. Parting blades.
  5. Boring bar.
  6. Side tool.

Henry Maudslay

Henry Maudslay, (born Aug. 22, 1771, Woolwich, Kent, Eng. – died Feb. 14, 1831, London), British engineer and inventor of the metal lathe and other devices.

Traditionally it is also believed that operation on the lathe is mandatory for making any mechanical product even for making another machine tool. Due to its extreme capability, people associated with the metal-working field love to designate lathe as a machine tool. Therefore, the lathe is not a machine; it is a machine tool.

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