Here, we deal about what is land pollution, its causes, and its effects. Now, when everything is polluted, why do we want to leave the land without pollution? We spread everywhere throughout the country. People are least bothered about where to push waste. Just take them away from your home and surroundings.
Land or Mother Earth, as many communities refer to it because of its abundant provision; It is under attack. According to biblical tradition, the man was entrusted to care for and take care of the land and it would bear fruit for him. For a long time, this is what he did. As life progressed and the population increased, the needs also increased. Discovery of metals, industrialization, the raw material requirement for factories, more fuel and power requirement, increased taste for dairy and meat products, processed foods packed neatly in plastics; All of this comes at a huge cost, which has been supplying us non-stop ever since.
What is land pollution?
Land pollution is the contamination of land either naturally or by humans. Whatever be the reason for this, the end result is that the land is getting polluted day by day. Land pollution can be caused by natural means or by humans. Natural causes like volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, or tornadoes can pollute the land but since they are natural causes, we are very helpless about it. But the destruction of land directly or indirectly by humans is worse than a natural cause.
Causes to land pollution
Land pollution involves substances that are foreign and toxic due to undesirable changes of the land and its inhabitants. This happens for various reasons which we will discuss briefly here.
- Agricultural practices that focus entirely on the high yield of crops and raw materials. These include the introduction of foreign species in the form of overuse of land, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and weed pesticides, pest control, deforestation, irregular disposal of agricultural wastes, etc.
- Irregular industrial discharge of untreated chemical wastes into the surrounding lands. This is done when industries want to avoid the high cost of treating wastes to remove harmful chemicals and heavy metals. Zinc-rich wastes from the steel industries are processed as fertilizers, including mercury, lead, arsenic, chromium, and nickel.
- Untreated human sewage runoff and dumping from urban centers are a major source of pollution in heavily populated areas. It causes the formation of toxic gases and increases the level of pathogens causing epidemics such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid asthma, and allergies.
- Mining, mineral, and metal processing actions discharge chemicals that are harmful to the environment. The basic minerals from which fertilizers are produced include heavy metals such as cadmium, fluoride, and uranium.
- Soil erosion: This is an effect and cause of land pollution. Erosion occurs due to deforestation, overwork of land, excessive chemical, rainwater runoff, and strong winds on unprotected land. These take away their fertile topsoil lands and the land loses its ability to provide nutrition for development.
- Garbage dumps and landfills cause so much contamination of the land. Toxins released at these places accumulate in the ground and leak. During contaminated rain, the pollution also goes to the spreading spots which may not be near the dump. Many of the different types of waste found here can be recycled and reused. The major parts include plastics, discarded food items, batteries, e-waste. It becomes a breeding area for rodents and insects.
- Healthcare wastes such as carcasses, blood, needle devices, and metal-contaminated wastes that must be disposed of carefully. If they are discarded abominably, they are dangerous to human health.
- Illegal dumping of waste is a very dangerous activity, which is done to avoid the cost of disposing of the waste properly!
- Disposal of animal farms, manures and other allied wastes specializing in cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry causes pollution of air, land as well as water. It is said that 18 percent of greenhouse gases are generated by agricultural animals. Manufactured manure in large quantities carries pathogens which are also harmful to humans. Proper animal waste management can reduce its huge bulk, making it easy to use.
Effects of land pollution
Leaching and groundwater poisoning
When water-soluble chemicals accumulate in the soil, depending on the composition of the soil, it reaches and destroys groundwater, causing its pollution. This is called leaching. It also depends on rainfall. For example, after applying pesticides to crops in sandy areas, if heavily irrigated, the pesticides move into the ground. Leaching occurs not only in farms but also at manufacturing, mixing, and disposal sites. It also happens at landfills and mining sites.
Only a fraction of fertilizers and other chemical additives are used on farms. The major bulk runoff is mixed with water and flows into nearby cisterns. It is mainly in the form of nitrate and phosphate.
Infants drinking water with high levels of nitrate are affected by Blue Baby Syndrome which is often fatal. Signs are shortness of breath and blue skin.
Eutrophication, also a direct result of land pollution, is also called water nutrient enrichment. When nitrogen and phosphorus-rich chemicals are discharged from the fields into the water, it increases the level of nutrients in the water. It encourages the growth of plants and algae. When they flower and bloom, they use most of the oxygen levels in the body of water, much less for other life forms. This kills fish and other animals in the water that cannot swim for safety. Algae blooms prohibit the entry of sunlight into water affecting photosynthesis in plants and do not allow the restoration of oxygen levels by this process. The water eventually becomes unfit to support any form of life. There are many dead zones or hypoxic areas where no aquatic life exists; Examples are the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.
Some toxins are also released by algae themselves that travel up the food chain and adversely affect higher life forms.
Drinking or swimming with dangerous levels of algal blooms leads to rashes, stomach and liver problems, respiratory diseases, and neurological effects.
Effects on human health
Plastic wastes contain polyvinyl chloride, phthalates, polycarbonate, polystyrene, and acrylic known to cause birth defects, cancer, difficulty breathing, eye irritation, and dermatitis.
The toxin is produced by coming in contact with or dissolving heavy metals. Chromium, mercury, lead, cadmium cause liver damage, lung, and kidney infections. Asbestos-containing arsenic causes cancer.
Deforestation destroys ecosystems, causing a loss of resources for flora and fauna, causing them to fade away. Soil erosion, acidification, runoff, and leaching are destroyed due to deforestation. Scenic locations lose tourism revenue when land is polluted.
As the level of land pollution has increased, governments, conservationists, social groups, and other non-governmental organizations have decided to create awareness about it. Regulations and actions are also taken to reduce and control the rate of pollution throughout the world.
In the US, the Environmental Protection Agency or EPA has introduced strict regulations and has been successful in bringing down pollution levels. They manage contaminated sites, regulate landfills, and deal with illegal dumping. And it responds to reports of illegal dumping from communities, working with local councils, and gathering intelligence. They take action against rogues who illegally benefit from dumping waste.
The EPA set environmental objectives and best practice measures for landfill operators to require a high level of landfill design and management to ensure that landfills do not leave an unacceptable environmental legacy for future generations is.
They manage contaminated sites by improving the transparency of management, enforcing legislation to safely manage contaminated sites, learning from the past to avoid future mistakes, supporting the conversion of these areas into property Huh.
Mother Earth is tired of the blind. It is our duty as grateful children to take care of him. Each one can make a difference.