What is Environmental Pollution?- Causes & Effects

What is Environmental Pollution?

Environmental pollution is defined as “the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected.”

Environmental pollution is the unfavorable alteration of our surroundings, wholly or largely as a byproduct of man’s actions, through direct or indirect effects of the changes in the energy pattern, radiation levels, and chemical and physical constitution and abundance of organisms.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm, discomfort, or harm to people or other living organisms, which may be in the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise, heat or light.

Pollutants can be naturally occurring substances or energies but are considered contaminants if they exceed the natural content.

Pollution occurs when the environment cannot process and neutralize harmful by-products of human activities (toxic gas emissions) in due course without structural or functional damage to its system.

Pollution occurs, on the one hand, because the natural environment does not know how to decompose the unnaturally produced elements (i.e. anthropogenic pollutants) and, on the other hand, humans lack knowledge of how to decompose these pollutants artificially.

It can take many years for nature to try to break down the pollutants. In one of the worst cases, radioactive pollutants, it can take thousands of years for such pollutants to decompose.

Why does pollution matter?

This is especially important to most as it negatively impacts key environmental services such as the provision of clean air and water, without which life on earth as we know it would not exist. People are the reason we have pollution.

Pollution affects our environment as water pollution can affect the living conditions of people and plants. Pollution can cause our environment to begin and fall. If we don’t have clean water for plants and trees, how are we going to make paper and grow vegetables for people to eat? Because of this, the big idea affects the environment and people are the main cause of pollution.

Causes of Environmental Pollution

1. Green House Effect

Have you seen a glasshouse or a greenhouse? It is a specially built environment for growing plants; In places where outdoor temperatures are not suitable for some plants. Sunlight enters the greenhouse through glass or plastic and heats the air inside; The outer cover does not allow heat to escape quickly.

Similarly, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere also trap the heat and radiation released and heat the atmosphere. Studies have shown that an increase of 5.6 ° C is possible by the late 2000s if the greenhouse effect continues.

The main greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide – most of the carbon dioxide is generated from the burning of fossil fuels and emissions from vehicles. Other greenhouse gases are ozone and water vapor and solid pollutants in the atmosphere. Chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide also catch heat and radiation.

2. Global Warming

The Earth’s atmosphere is heating up due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases. It is happening in the closest layer of the Earth i.e. in the troposphere. Usually, when the sun’s rays reach the surface of the Earth, the extra radiation is reflected back from the surface into space.

Gaseous and solid pollutants in the atmosphere trap this radiation, without allowing it to escape and as a result heat the Earth.

The warmest year since 2000 has been recorded by NASA. Is higher than normal temperature

  • The rapid dissolving of glaciers at the poles
  • Many meters of sea-level rise, affect coastal lands all over the world. The seas gradually encroach on the beaches and these will gradually disappear, Causing the continents to shrink.
  • Because heating the surface of the oceans emits large amounts of energy, light storms predominate. The number and intensity of hurricanes and cyclones have increased worldwide. The damage and loss of life and property have become regular news.
  • Heatwaves are happening all over the world, taking a huge toll on life again.
  • Heavy floods due to heavy rainfall and severe droughts on the contrary are evidence of climate change.
  • Changes in sea temperature cause damage to many important coral reefs and aquatic habitats that are important for the survival of various deep currents and many ocean species.
  • Increased temperatures are conducive to the spread of infectious disease epidemics and respiratory diseases.

3. Acid rain

Various gases from industries are released as burning fossil fuels, manufacturing and processing chemicals, and plastic products. Sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide specifically react with oxygen and water vapor to form sulfuric and nitric acids.

When it rains or naps, acid falls into the air and falls to the earth. This is called acid rain or acid deposition.

In acid rain, the pH is between 4 – 4.5. This causes the acidity of the land or water bodies to fall on it. In large quantities, there are changes in the ecosystems associated with them.

In addition, since winds can transport air pollutants away from the source of pollution, acidic rain does not affect the location where the pollutants were released. It can prefix anywhere.

4. Eutrophication

  • When materials containing fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, are dumped from the fields into the water, they create a nutrient-rich environment in the water. This is called nutrient enrichment. It promotes plant growth.
  • Algae also benefit greatly from this nutrient-rich environment. When they flower and bloom, they use most of the oxygen in the body leaving very little water for the remaining life forms. This kills fishes and other organisms that cannot swim for protection.
  • Algae blooms prevent the entry of sunlight into the water which affects the photosynthesis of plants which further impairs oxygen levels.
  • The water eventually becomes unfit to support any form of life.
  • Some algae also release some toxins that travel up the food chain and adversely affect higher life forms.

5. Oil Spills

Crude oil is transported all over the world from the place of production. These are mostly done in large oil carrier areas on oceans and seas. Ships are caused by natural wear and tear or by accident.

They can also occur at sites of production at drilling or refining sites. Oil spills pose a great danger to aquatic and marine life forms. These are isolated incidents but are largely polluting factors.

Apart from being huge, it is very expensive to clean and takes a long time to do so. Even the birds and mammals of the area are affected when the oil coats their fur or feathers. This widespread leads to destruction.

6. Smog

Smog is used to refer to a compound of smoke and fog. But in recent times it is much higher than this. Acting sunlight on nitrous oxide and volatile organic compounds, both are air pollutants, producing ozone gas that remains close to the ground.

VOC s are caused by heavy industries, smoke from vehicles, many chemicals found in plastics, products of paints. Such smog is called photochemical smog due to the involvement of sunlight in the reaction.

Smog is usually seen

  • High traffic cities
  • Hot days with very light air
  • Places that are surrounded by mountains on every side, because there is less air circulation

Ozone increases the incidence of respiratory diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and difficulty breathing. It also causes eye irritation.

Effect of plastic on soil/water

Plastic is a substance that we find in every aspect of our life. It is inexpensive, easy to make, and reasonably durable depending on the way it is manufactured. But at the same time, it is not biodegradable which means it will not break into its individual components.

It is found everywhere due to mass production. Although a certain percentage of plastic is brought for recycling in large quantities, it still finds its way into landfills, oceans, beaches, etc.

The plastic is swallowed by animals and birds, not being able to digest it causes obstruction and death. In the ground it blocks root growth, transmitting toxic chemicals into the ground leading to poisoning of groundwater.

In the oceans, discarded plastic traps are fatal to marine organisms that get entangled in them. Many chemicals that are carcinogenic are released over the long term and consumed by algae plankton and eventually enter the food chain that reaches humans.

Indoor air pollution

Some studies indicate indoor air to be of lower quality than outdoor air. Many people spend most of their time outside their offices or homes. Sources of pollutants inside a home include

  • Non-circulation of the air; Mechanical heating and cooling, insufficient ventilation, and poorly maintained air conditioners
  • Chemicals released from cleaning materials in washrooms and kitchens
  • Kitchen and toilet fumes
  • Dust particles on furnishings and carpets that thrive in hot humid environments
  • Mold found in damp locations on walls with poorly constructed pipelines or water leaks
  • Domestic insects and their droppings and remain.
  • household pet
  • Tobacco smoke damages active and passive smokers.
  • Carbon monoxide from indoor furnaces and chimneys, gas stoves, etc.
  • Emissions from paints and their solvents, air fresheners, sprays, pesticides and repellents, disinfectants, glues, etc.
  • Asbestos is found in building materials
  • lead from paint

Ozone layer depletion

The ozone layer is a component of our atmosphere. Its main purpose is to filter the sunlight passing through it and prevent harmful ultra-violet rays from reaching the earth. These UV rays are recognized to be carcinogenic affecting the skin and eyes.

In some places, man-made chloro-floor-carbs and other halogens are responsible for the thinning and destruction of the ozone layer. CFCs were used in aerosols and refrigerants. Their production is now banned in various parts of the world.

The rise of UV radiation has led to a rise in skin cancer, cataracts, damaged plant life, and altered plankton levels in the oceans.

Isn’t it heartbreaking to know the effects of environmental pollution? It should feel like … what has man done to this beautiful planet? I wish, what are we doing to improve it? We are exploiting the remaining good things to push ourselves into deep trouble.


What is environmentally pollution?

Environmental pollution is unwarranted disposal of mass or energy into earth’s natural resource pool such as water, land, or air that results in long- or short-term detriment to the atmosphere and its ecological health to negatively impact the living beings and their life both quantitatively and qualitatively.

What is environmental pollution called?

pollution, also called environmental pollution, the addition of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (such as heat, sound, or radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form.

What causes environmental pollution?

Additionally, environmental pollution is triggered by the introduction of harmful materials, such as gaseous pollutants, toxic metals, and particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere; sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoffs, and electronic wastes into water bodies; and activities.

What are the types of environmental pollution?

Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution are three major forms of environmental pollution. Pollution can also refer to excessive human activity, such as light and noise pollution, or to specific pollutants such as plastic or radioactive material.

What are the 10 causes of environmental pollution?

  1. Burning of Fossil Fuels – such as coal, oil, gasoline to produce energy for electricity or transportation
  2. Automobiles – gases emitted from vehicles
  3. Agricultural Activities – the insecticides, pesticides and fertilizers emit harmful chemicals. Burning stubble and farm residue also contribute to pollution.
  4. Factories and Industries – emits carbon monoxide, organic compounds, hydrocarbons and chemicals.
  5. Mining Activities – dust and chemicals are released while extracting minerals from the earth
  6. Domestic Sources – household cleaning products and paints contain toxic chemicals
  7. Construction and Demolition – raw materials such as bricks and concrete cause haze and foul air
  8. Open burning of Garbage waste
  9. Microbial Decaying process – Decaying of the microorganisms present in the surrounding releases methane gas which is highly toxic.
  10. Volcanic eruptions- volcanoes release enough sulfur dioxide into the air and influence global cooling.

What is effect of environmental pollution?

An increased risk of heart disease, wheezing, coughing, and respiratory problems and skin, nose, and throat irritation can be caused by high levels of air pollution. Air Pollution affects human health in different ways, Air pollution may also cause heart attacks, asthma, and other respiratory complications.

Why is pollution the biggest environmental problem?

Air pollution is now considered to be the world’s largest environmental health threat, accounting for 7 million deaths around the world every year. Air pollution causes and exacerbates a number of diseases, ranging from asthma to cancer, pulmonary illnesses and heart disease.

What are the 3 major types of pollution?

The three major types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution. Sometimes, air pollution is visible.

What are the six environmental problems?

Some of the key issues are:

  • Pollution
  • Global warming.
  • Overpopulation.
  • Waste disposal.
  • Ocean acidification
  • Loss of biodiversity.
  • Deforestation.
  • Ozone layer depletion.

What are 3 effects of pollution?

Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. It increases the risk of respiratory infections, heart disease and lung cancer. Both short- and long-term exposure to air pollutants have been associated with health impacts. More severe impacts affect people who are already ill.

What is the biggest environmental threat today?

Climate change is the greatest existing threat to American wildlife, wild places, and communities around the country. Communities are already feeling the effects of a changing climate.

What is meant by environmental pollution?

Any unnatural and negative changes in all the dimensions like chemical, physical, and. biological characteristics of any component of the ecosystem i.e. air, water, or soil which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life and property is called environmental pollution.

What are the 5 major environmental health?

management, hazardous material management, waste disposal systems, contaminated site remediation, prevention of leakage of underground storage tanks, emergency responses and prevention of release of hazardous materials into the environment has become essential.

What are the 5 environmental hygiene?

Clean air, stable climate, adequate water, sanitation and hygiene, safe use of chemicals, protection from radiation, healthy and safe workplaces, sound agricultural practices, health-supportive cities and built environments, and a preserved nature are all prerequisites for good health.

What is the biggest cause of pollution?

Vehicle emissions, fuel oils and natural gas to heat homes, by-products of manufacturing and power generation, particularly coal-fueled power plants, and fumes from chemical production are the primary sources of human-made air pollution.

Why is it important to stop pollution?

Reducing pollutants in the air is important for human health and the environment. Poor air quality has harmful effects on human health, particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Pollutants can also damage plants and buildings, and smoke or haze can reduce visibility.

How can environmental problems be solved?

Recycle (& then recycle properly) Implementing recycling habits into your daily life is one of the most effective ways to help lessen landfill waste, conserve natural resources, save habitats, reduce pollution, cut down on energy consumption, and slow down global warming.

How can we prevent environmental pollution essay?

The first way to reduce pollution is to practice the 3Rs concept namely reduce, reuse and recycle. Citizens should reduce the usage of air-conditioners as it will release harmful gases, for instant ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons which will result in reducing air pollution.

What is destroying the environment?

Human activity is causing environmental degradation, which is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.

What are the 4 types of environmental exploitation?

Greenhouse gas increase. Extreme energy. Water gasification. Natural hazard/Natural disaster.

What are examples of environmental risks?

Examples Of Environmental Hazards Include:

  • Air contaminants.
  • Toxic waste.
  • Radiation.
  • Disease-causing microorganisms and plants.
  • Pesticides.
  • Heavy metals.
  • Chemicals in consumer products.
  • Extreme temperatures and weather events.

How do environmental issues affect my life?

Environmental hazards increase the risk of cancer, heart disease, asthma, and many other illnesses. These hazards can be physical, such as pollution, toxic chemicals, and food contaminants, or they can be social, such as dangerous work, poor housing conditions, urban sprawl, and poverty.