In these digital times, the demand for more efficient and better-performing electronic gadgets keeps increasing. People need devices that are fast, multi-functional, and have long battery lives. To cater to this demand, the use of batteries with high energy density, such as Lithium-ion batteries, is becoming more common.
Though lithium-ion batteries are indeed invaluable, there are certain risks associated with them. Companies have to conduct elaborate testing to ensure their safety. If you want to learn more about Lithium-ion battery testing, then keep reading:
The Need for Lithium-Ion Battery Testing
The mass production of lithium-ion batteries has contributed to the advancement and increasing accessibility of gadgets like mobile phones and laptops. Their utility lies in their high energy ratio, long life cycle, and high electrode voltage. However, their usage is not free of risk.
In recent years, under abuse conditions, such as heating and overcharging. Lithium batteries have been seen to result in grave results, such as fires and explosions. Given the risk of fatalities, testing these batteries has become crucial before commercializing them. Companies now often use kits such as lithium-Ion battery safety test equipment to simulate possible problems so they can work toward minimizing the risks involved.
Types of Battery Tests
There are several types of tests conducted to guarantee the safety of batteries:
1. Mechanical Shock
Shock testing machines are used to test if the battery can endure shock waves and shock energy, as it may be subjected to impact during use, packaging, or transportation. This assesses the structural integrity and adaptability of the product against different impact forces.
A fully charged battery should be rigidly attached to the test machine. It should hold out against an equivalent of three shocks. And the impact of these shocks should be enforced in three different directions, all perpendicular to each other.
One of these directions should be on a horizontal surface as well. This test needs to be conducted at room temperature. The battery should be observed during the trial for any signs of leakage, ignition, and explosion.
2. Battery Drop Testing
Battery drop testing evaluates any electronic damage risks resulting from drop and collision. In case of any accidents during handlings, such as drops and crashes, the battery should hold up. This is the most common structural test.
This test is also carried out at room temperature. The battery is fully charged and dropped from a height of 10 meters on a concrete floor, and the process is repeated thrice. An hour after the fall, it is visually examined for signs of fire and explosion. This ensures no fire hazards arise during transportation or use.
3. Thermal Abuse
The reason lithium-ion batteries are a fire hazard is because of their thermal runaway. This can be a result of external or internal conditions. The internal temperature is directly correlated to the external temperature.
If the temperature gets high enough, the diaphragm will close to protect the positive and negative poles. If the separator does not close due to any function failure, the temperature will continue to rise, resulting in serious safety problems. To test the battery thoroughly, companies use thermal abuse test chambers.
This test involves putting fully charged cells in Thermal Abuse Test Chambers, where the temperature is raised to 130 degrees Celsius. The battery stays there for 30 minutes; if it does not ignite or explode, it is considered safe to use.
With rising demand for Lithium-ion batteries and companies constantly trying to outdo the competition by introducing products with longer battery lives, comprehensive testing has become crucial. Extreme testing in various abuse conditions, such as mechanical shock, free fall, and thermal abuse testing, can help assess the products and make their production and consumption safer for all parties involved.