What is Die in Manufacturing?
A die is a specialized machine tool used in manufacturing industries to cut and/or form material to a desired shape or profile. Stamping dies are used with a press, as opposed to drawing dies (used in the manufacture of wire) and casting dies (used in molding) which are not. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create.
Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology. Continuous-feed laser cutting may displace the analogous die-based process in the automotive industry, among others.
How Dies Are Used in the Manufacturing Industry?
Dies are an essential tool used in the manufacturing industry. They work like molds to create objects in custom and often complex shapes. From small fasteners and tool bits to large automotive components and machine parts, dies are used to create a variety of products.
The Various Parts of a Die Set
A typical die set contains nearly a dozen different parts, some of which include the following:
- Punch Plate
- Die Block
- Blank Punch
- Pierce Pinch
- Dowel pin
- Pierce Punch
- Stripper Plate
Are Dies the Same as Molds?
Dies are often confused with molds, with many people believing they are the same. While both processes involve the manipulation of a raw material’s size and shape using a cavity, though, they aren’t the same.
Molds are generally hollow cavities in which the raw material is poured, whereas dies consist of a solid product with a pre-made cavity that’s used to stamp the raw material.
Processes In Which Dies Are Used
There are actually numerous manufacturing processes that involve the use of a die. Blanking, for example, requires the use of a die to cut a piece of flat metal, typically sheet metal, into the desired size and shape. Coining, on the other hand, involves the use of a die to create objects with different designs or characteristics in each size.
Hopefully, this gives you a better understanding of dies and how they are used in the manufacturing industry. To recap, a die is a pre-shaped tool that’s used with a press to manipulate the size and shape of raw materials. It’s like a mold, with the only exception being that it stamps the raw material.
Types of Dies
For different purposes, mainly the following types of dies are used:
- Simple die
- Compound Die
- Combination dies
- Progressive die
- Transfer Die
- Multiple die
- Round split Die
- Adjustable Die
- Die Nut
- Pipe Die
- Acron Die
1. Simple Dies
Also known as a single operation die, a simple die is a shaping tool that performs one operation per press slide stroke. This type of die is typically used for smaller applications in the workplace. For example, it may be useful for the manufacturing of simple metal parts.
The benefit of a simple die is that it’s an excellent option if you’re looking for a tool that can handle blanking and piercing jobs. It consists of a die block and stripper plate, which hold onto the metal sheet while the punch cuts a hole and removes the blanks. The main downside is that the simple die is less efficient and less suited for larger applications than other dies.
2. Compound Dies
For more demanding or complex blanking and piercing applications, a compound die can do the job faster. Rather than handling just one operation at a time, the compound die can simultaneously complete the blanking and piercing processes.
The compound die is less useful for bending and forming operations, and it tends to require a higher level of force than some of the other options. That said, it’s a more cost-effective option than the simple die when it comes to manufacturing washers and other flat metal parts. If you’re looking for types of punches and dies that you can use in general cutting applications, the compound die could be the solution you need.
Advantages of Compound Dies:
- One component is produced for stroke. Hence, the production rate is high.
Limitation of Compound Dies:
- Both of the methods of reducing the punch force cannot be used. Therefore, the force required for the compound die will be higher.
- Design and Manufacturing of punch and die combination is difficult if the no. of operations is greater than 3.
3. Combination dies
The combination die is similar to the compound die in terms of design and efficiency. It can handle more than one operation at once, which allows it to deliver faster, more reliable results. As an added bonus, the combination die is well-suited for both cutting and shaping applications.
If you need to complete a blanking or punching operation combined with a bending operation, the combination die will have you covered. This versatile tool can play a role in all types of metalwork applications, from mining equipment manufacturing to electronics and appliance development.
- Blanking combined with Deep drawing
- Punching combined with Deep drawing
- Blanking combined with bending etc.
Advantages of Combination Die:
- Due to the presence of both cutting and forming operations at a time on the work material, the production rate is much high compared to other dies.
4. Progressive Dies
Progressive dies also known as follow-on dies have a series of operations. At every station on the workpiece, an operation is performed during the stroke of the press. However, in between the two presses, the workpiece gets transferred to the next station and is worked there. In this operation thus, each press operation develops a finished piece.
The initial sheet metal is fed as a coil strip and at the same station, different operations like punching, blanking, notching, etc. occur with each stroke of series of punches.
The piercing punch cuts a hole in the stroke, whereas the blanking punch blanks out a portion of metal in which hole had been pierced in the previous station. Thus, with each first stroke, when a hole will be punched, each stroke of the press produces a finished washer.
Advantages of Progressive Die:
- In this also, one component is produced for stroke. Therefore, the production rate is the same as that of the compound die.
- In addition, either by providing the shear or by staggering the punches methodology, the force required will be reduced.
- In addition, because the operation is performed at different stages, the design and manufacturing of punch and die combination is easier with whatever may be the no of operations.
Disadvantages of Progressive Die:
- The only problem is the balancing of forces on the punch head is difficult.
- They require setup procedures and precision alignment.
- The removal of the entire die set will happen when there is damage to the single station.
- Compared to the single station dies, they are much heavier.
5. Transfer dies
Transfer dies have a similar working phenomenon to progressive dies. Here also the stroke is fed progressively from one station to another. However, here the already cut blanks are fed mechanically to other stations. Thus, transfer dies to provide different stations for operations. Here, the workpiece is progressively modified at each station until the final operation ejects the finished part.
Advantages of Transfer Die:
- The production is more economical compared to Progressive die.
- More Versatile
- large parts will be handled and those are transferred between multiple presses to complete the operation.
Disadvantages of Transfer Die:
- When compared to progressive die, the blank has to be set in every stage but any type of strap-strip layout is possible to implement.
- They are often quite costly.
- More die protection sensors are required.
6. Multiple Dies
Multiple dies also known as gang dies ate those dies which produce two or more pies at each stroke of the press. In these dies, a number of simple dies are ganged together to produce two or more parts via each stroke of the press.
Advantages of Multiple Die:
- More components are produced due to the presence of more dies.
- The time required is very less.
- High production rate.
Applications of Multiple Die:
- To produce 10 washers per stroke,10 compound dies or 10 progressive dies are kept in parallel called as multiple dies.
- So, this is a detailed explanation of different types of dies used in sheet metal operations. I hope you liked the article if so don’t forget to share your thoughts in the comment section and also spread the knowledge in your favorite social media platform.
7 Round split Die:
These are also known as slide Die. This is a one-piece die, which is cut from one end. This die is fitted on the die stock in such a way that all the three screws of the stock are set on the seat built on it.
This checks the die from rotating in the stock. After fitting it on the job, the center screw is tightened before cutting threads. These dies are used for small jobs. A round split due has been shown in the figure.
8 Adjustable Die:
This die is in two pieces. In both, the threads of the pieces are cut inside. In these threads, round grooves are cut which per from the job of cutting edge. These pieces bear Numbers 1 or 2. There is a provision for adjustable distance among them with the outside screw. For this purpose, there is a seat of the screw.
Threads can be cut on the gib jobs with this die. First high threads are cut by slightly tightening both the pieces and after tightening them further deep threads are cut. This type of die has been shown in the figure.
9 Die Nut:
Its shape is square or like a six-phased nut as shown in the figure. In the threads cut inside it, four or six flutes are cut which makes a cutting edge. It is used for repairing old threads. It can be moved with an ordinary spanner.
10 Pipe Die
This die is specially used for cutting threads on water pipes, gas and oil pipes, etc. Die of two to four pieces are used in it, which are fitted in different types of dies handle as shown in the figure.
An adjusting screw is provided on stock or handles for adjusting the die. A guide is fitted in this stock or handle, which guides the die to move in the straight direction of the pipe. Threads cut with this die are of a special type because this die cuts threads in the taper. This is why the sockets fitted on these pipes become gas and liquid-proof.
11 Acron Die
This is the modern form of the die. This type of die is used for cutting outside threads on a pipe fitted in a groove or a hole.
This die is also like a nut in which threads are cut inside and it is cut intermittently as shown in the figure. For the purpose of convenience, this is tapered from one end. It is moved by holding it in a holder of a special type.