Drilling Machine: Definition, Parts, and Types

What is a Drilling Machine?

A drill or drilling machine is a tool primarily used for making round holes or driving fasteners. It is fitted with a bit, either a drill or driver, depending on the application, secured by a chuck. Some powered drills also include a hammer function.

Drills vary widely in speed, power, and size. They have characteristically corded electrically driven devices, with hand-operated types dramatically decreasing in popularity and cordless battery-powered ones proliferating.

Drills are commonly used in woodworking, metalworking, construction, machine tool fabrication, construction, and utility projects. Specially designed versions are made for medicine, space, and miniature applications.

A drilling machine, also called a drill press, is a powerful tool used to cut a round hole into or through metal, plastic, wood, or other solid materials by turning and advancing rotary drill bits into a workpiece.

This drilling cutting tool is held in the drill press by a chuck and fed into the work at variable speeds. The speed and feed should be set properly and coolant needs to be provided for the desired finished part. The drilling machine can not only be applied in the drilling process but is also useful for many other machining operations.

There are various operations that can be performed on a drilling machine, such as plane drilling, step drilling, core drilling, boring, counterboring, reaming, countersinking, spot facing, tapping, and trepanning.

Drilling Machine

Parts of Drilling Machine

A drilling machine is usually composed of several or all of the following parts.

  • Base: generally bolted with the ground to support the weight of the drilling machine.
  • Column: located on one side of the base, can carry the load of the arm and drill head, with a sliding table mounted on it.
  • Arm: at the top of the column, carries the drill head and the housing of the driving mechanism.
  • Drill head: mounted on one side of the arm, consists of feed and driving mechanism. It can slide up and down.
  • Worktable: mounted on the column, can move vertically and horizontally.
  • Feed mechanism: hand and automatic feed by an electrical motor.
  • Spindle: holds the drill or cutting tool and revolves in a fixed position in a sleeve.
  • Chuck: situated on the spindle, holds the drill jig.
  • Electric Motor

Working of Drilling Machine

When the power is given to the motor, the spindle rotates, and thereby the stepped pulley attached to it also rotates. On the other end, one more stepped pulley is attached and that is inverted to increase or decrease the speed of the rotational motion.

Now, a V-belt is placed in between the stepped pulleys so as to drive the power transmission. Here a V-belt is used instead of a flat belt, in order to increase the power efficiency.

Now the drill bit also rotates which was placed in the chuck and which was in connection with the spindle. As the Pulleys rotate, the spindle also rotates which can rotate the drill bit.

Now, by the rotation of the hand-wheel, the spindle moves up and down in the vertical direction in order to give the necessary amount of feed to the work, and this drill bit is used to make the holes on the component placed in the machine vice.

Types of Drilling Machines

There are many different types of drilling machines:

  • Radial drilling machine
  • Upright drilling machine
  • Automatic drilling machine
  • Multiple Spindle drilling machine
  • Deep hole drilling machine
  • Sensitive drilling machine
  • Portable drilling machine
  • Gang drilling machine

Here are some different types of drilling machines with their construction, characteristics, and uses.

  • Portable drilling machine (Hand drilling machine): generally small in size and contains a universal motor, used for drilling holes on the rocks or any rigid surface, suitable for any location. The piece to be drilled is held in a vice.
  • Sensitive drilling machine (Bench drilling machine): perfect for producing small holes at high speeds, usually consists of a base, worktable, spindle, drill head, driving mechanism and column. The work is started from the drill fed into the piece by hand.
  • Radial drilling machine: mainly for drilling large and heavy workspaces, the table can be adjusted to suit different heights. It allows the operator to make the spindle directly over the workpiece rather than move the part to the tool, and also capable to create intersecting or angular holds in one setup.
  • Upright drilling machine: larger and stronger than sensitive drilling machine, designed for handling medium to large-sized holes.
  • Gang drilling machine: can be used for drilling, reaming, counterboring and tapping, just need to move the machine back and forth.
  • Deep mole drilling machine: special type that is designed to drill deep holes in the connecting rods, spindles and others, with high cutting speed and less feed.
  • Multiple spindle drilling machine: with several spindles, perfect for drilling a large number of holes into a part and drilling same holes on identical workpieces.
  • CNC drilling machine: computer numerical control drilling machine can automatically change tooling with a turret or automatic tool changer. The program controls the speeds, feeds and table position.
  • Micro drill press: extremely accurate, high spindle speed, used to handle tiny or very small parts.
  • Turret type drilling machine: equipped with several drilling heads mounted on a turret, the tool can be quickly indexed into position.